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Développement d’un estimateur d’état non linéaire embarqué pour le pilotage-guidage robuste d’un micro-drone en milieu complexe

Abstract : This thesis presents the study of an algorithmic solution for state estimation problem of unmanned aerial vehicles, or UAVs. The necessary resort to multiple miniaturized low-cost and low- performance sensors integrated into mini-RPAS, which are obviously subjected to hard space requirements or electrical power consumption constraints, has led to an important interest to design nonlinear observers for data fusion, unmeasured systems state estimation and/or flight path reconstruction. Exploiting the capabilities of nonlinear observers allows, by generating consolidated signals, to extend the way mini-RPAS can be controlled while enhancing their intrinsic flight handling qualities.That is why numerous recent research works related to RPAS certification and integration into civil airspace deal with the interest of highly robust estimation algorithm. Therefore, the development of reliable and performant aided-INS for many nonlinear dynamic systems is an important research topic and a major concern in the aerospace engineering community. First, we have proposed a novel approach for nonlinear state estimation, named pi-IUKF (Invariant Unscented Kalman Filter), which is based on both invariant filter estimation and UKF theoretical principles. Several research works on nonlinear invariant observers have been led and provide a geometrical-based constructive method for designing filters dedicated to nonlinear state estimation problems while preserving the physical properties and systems symmetries. The general invariant observer guarantees a straightforward form of the nonlinear estimation error dynamics whose properties are remarkable. The developed pi-IUKF estimator suggests a systematic approach to determine all the symmetry-preserving correction terms, associated with a nonlinear state-space representation used for prediction, without requiring any linearization of the differential equations. The exploitation of the UKF principles within the invariant framework has required the definition of a compatibility condition on the observation equations. As a first result, the estimated covariance matrices of the pi-IUKF converge to constant values due to the symmetry-preserving property provided by the nonlinear invariant estimation theory. The designed pi-IUKF method has been successfully applied to some relevant practical problems such as the estimation of Attitude and Heading for aerial vehicles using low-cost AH reference systems (i.e., inertial/magnetic sensors characterized by low performances). In a second part, the developed methodology is used in the case of a mini-RPAS equipped with an aided Inertial Navigation System (INS) which leads to augment the nonlinear state space representation with both velocity and position differential equations. All the measurements are provided on board by a set of low-cost and low-performance sensors (accelerometers, gyrometers, magnetometers, barometer and even Global Positioning System (GPS)). Our designed pi-IUKF estimation algorithm is described and its performances are evaluated by exploiting successfully real flight test data. Indeed, the whole approach has been implemented onboard using a data logger based on the well-known Paparazzi system. The results show promising perspectives and demonstrate that nonlinear state estimation converges on a much bigger set of trajectories than for more traditional approaches.
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Submitted on : Monday, November 30, 2015 - 1:55:17 PM
Last modification on : Thursday, October 28, 2021 - 3:16:37 PM
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Jean-Philippe Condomines. Développement d’un estimateur d’état non linéaire embarqué pour le pilotage-guidage robuste d’un micro-drone en milieu complexe. Physique de l'espace [physics.space-ph]. INSTITUT SUPERIEUR DE L'AERONAUTIQUE ET DE L'ESPACE (ISAE), 2015. Français. ⟨tel-01235618⟩

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