Analyse de "Time Lapse" optiques stéréo et d'images radar satellitaires : application à la mesure du déplacement de glaciers

Abstract : Earth observation by image acquisition systems allows the survey of temporal evolution of natural phenomena such as earthquakes, volcanoes or gravitational movements. Various techniques exist including satellite imagery, terrestrial photogrammetry and in-situ measurements. Image time series from automatic cameras (Time Lapse) are a growing source of information since they offer an interesting compromise in terms of spatial coverage and observation frequency in order to measure surface motion in specific areas. This PhD thesis is devoted to the analysis of image time series from terrestrial photography and satellite radar imagery to measure the displacement of Alpine glaciers. We are particularly interested in Time Lapse stereo processing problems for monitoring geophysical objects in unfavorable conditions for photogrammetry. We propose a single-camera processing chain that includes the steps of automatic photograph selection, coregistration and calculation of two-dimensional (2D) displacement field. The information provided by the stereo pairs is then processed using the MICMAC software to reconstruct the relief and get the three-dimensional (3D) displacement. Several pairs of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images were also processed with the EFIDIR tools to obtain 2D displacement fields in the radar geometry in ascending or descending orbits. The combination of measurements obtained almost simultaneously on these two types of orbits allows the reconstruction of the 3D displacement. These methods have been implemented on time series of stereo pairs acquired by two automatic cameras installed on the right bank of the Argentière glacier and on TerraSAR-X satellite images covering the Mont-Blanc massif. The results are presented on data acquired during a multi-instrument experiment conducted in collaboration with the French Geographic National Institute (IGN) during the fall of 2013,with a network of Géocubes which provided GPS measurements. They are used to evaluate the accuracy of the results obtained by proximal and remote sensing on this type of glacier.
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Ha Thai Pham. Analyse de "Time Lapse" optiques stéréo et d'images radar satellitaires : application à la mesure du déplacement de glaciers. Traitement du signal et de l'image [eess.SP]. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015GREAA004⟩. ⟨tel-01204676⟩

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