Relations trophiques entre producteurs primaires et quatre consommateurs primaires benthiques dans un écosystème côtier tempéré

Abstract : In coastal euphotic areas, primary producers grow both in the pelagic (water column) and in the benthic zone (in or near the sediment). In these ecosystems, benthic-pelagic coupling is an important process which must be well described. Benthic primary consumers modify this coupling through their diet. Trophic relationships between primary producers and benthic primary consumers are not thoroughly understood. To gain additional information, this thesis was focused on the spatial and temporal dynamic of primary producers in suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM), especially at water-sediment interface. This study highlighted a seasonal variation of microalgal populations at all depths, and a relative dominance of benthic diatoms in SPOM near sediment and in winter. The second objective of the thesis was focused on the trophic relationships between benthic primary consumers (great scallop, black scallop, mussel and ormer) and primary producers in SPOM. Stable isotope analysis in soft tissues of black scallops and mussels showed a predominance of assimilated phytoplankton and the potential contribution of microphytobenthos in their diet (more important for mussel), especially in winter and near the sediment. However, this study highlighted the impact of metabolism on stable isotopic values of soft tissues. An innovative aspect of this thesis was the use of exoskeleton of great scallops and ormers to characterize their diet in natural environment and thus overcome problems related to the utilization of stable isotopes in soft tissues. Experiments in controlled conditions validated food sources integration through metabolic carbon in carbonates of great scallops and shell color for ormer but complementary studies are required on mollusk shell utilization. The last part of this thesis was focused on the ability of great scallops to achieve resuspension of benthic particles by valve movements.
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Violette Marchais. Relations trophiques entre producteurs primaires et quatre consommateurs primaires benthiques dans un écosystème côtier tempéré. Ecologie, Environnement. Université de Bretagne occidentale - Brest, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014BRES0111⟩. ⟨tel-01193015v2⟩

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