De la compréhension collective de l'activité réelle à la conception participative de l'organisation : plaidoyer pour une intervention ergonomique capacitante.

Abstract : This thesis develops and applies the paradigm of constructive ergonomics to organizational design. The development of individuals and organizations is presented through the capability approach, and more specifically through the approach of collective capabilities. These are not the mere juxtaposition or aggregation of individual capabilities but involve the emergence of a new and collective possibility to act and create.In this constructive and developmental perspective, the research is based on a redesign intervention regarding an innovative care process - outpatient surgery. It defines and implements an intervention methodology that considers development as the means and the end of the action. The methodology rests on setting up an enabling environment (at least during the intervention) and an ergonomic approach which supports the development of operators' capabilities through the joint collective activity. This process promotes a collective agency which allows the group to fulfil a common goal of transforming work rules. This shared commitment within the group and the actual opportunities for change have facilitated the design of an organization of collective work.The ergonomic intervention has proceeded in 2 steps: the construction of a diagnosis regarding the situation to be transformed and the management of the organizational change. The first step consisted in analyzing work and its contradictions: is the organization impeding or encouraging the joint collective activity development? Is it a resource for the development of collective capabilities? The diagnosis has highlighted the disruption of professional standards of care staff generated by outpatient surgery and the difficulty of the care staff in building an organization that promotes a transverse team and a collective joint activity. In view of these results, the second step has fostered and supported the active participation of operators in processes of change and design. At first, the ergonomist has implemented a dynamics encouraging the debate about the representations of work. This has led to a shared representation of the current situation, required for the design of a future situation. Then, a participatory methodology of organizational design has been implemented leading to an organization project of ambulatory surgery.Finally, this research questions the role of the ergonomist as a conversion factor in this process of organizational transformation and proposes a model of ergonomic transformation action.
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Anne Raspaud. De la compréhension collective de l'activité réelle à la conception participative de l'organisation : plaidoyer pour une intervention ergonomique capacitante.. Sociologie. Conservatoire national des arts et metiers - CNAM, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014CNAM0959⟩. ⟨tel-01140901⟩

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