Le système phénoloxydase : caractérisation biochimique et rôle dans la réponse immunitaire chez la palourde japonaise Venerupis philippinarum exposée à Vibrio tapetis

Abstract : The manila clam, Venerupis philippinarum, was introduced in France in the early 70’s for aquaculture purposes. Since 1987, mass mortality events, caused by the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio tapetis, have occurred in this species along French and European coasts. This vibriose, called Brown Ring Disease (BRD), is considered as a cool water disease. The tripartite interaction between V. philippinarum, V. tapetis and the environment was explored through the role of the enzymatic system of phenoloxidases (POs) in order to better understand the manila clam immune response, the pathogen virulence and also the environment impact and particularly the temperature’s one. POs are oxidoreductase enzymes involved in the synthesis of the melanin and its derivatives and also in the processes of non-self recognition and encapsulation in invertebrates. Firstly, PO activity was biochemically characterized in the hemolymph serum as a laccase-like activity; a minority tyrosinaselike activity was also identified. Clam inoculation with three V. tapetis strains, at various temperatures, highlighted a modulation of the answer of the PO system according to time post-infection and studied compartments. Overall, bacterial infection resulted in an increase in PO activity. However, the PO activity basal level varies between populations and this variability seems to reflect different susceptibility to the BRD. An increase in temperature from 15 to 22°C led to an increase in manila clam immune abilities. The temperature also had an impact on the V. tapetis pathogenicity and this impact was variable according to the strains. PO activity inhibition observed, in vitro, in the presence of bacterial extracellular products underlines the complexity of the interaction between V. philippinarum and V. tapetis. Thus, the monitoring of the PO activity constitutes a relevant biomarker of marine invertebrate immune abilities in the tripartite interaction host-pathogen-environment.
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Cédric Le Bris. Le système phénoloxydase : caractérisation biochimique et rôle dans la réponse immunitaire chez la palourde japonaise Venerupis philippinarum exposée à Vibrio tapetis. Immunologie. Université de Bretagne occidentale - Brest, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013BRES0054⟩. ⟨tel-01064336⟩

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