Evaluation de la spectroscopie du proton par RMN à 3 Tesla sans antenne endorectale chez les patients présentant un cancer de prostate localisé traité par radiothérapie exclusive

Abstract : Prostate cancer is the most frequent tumour affecting the male population. When the prostate is not removed and is treated with radiation therapy, PSA slowly decreases over time to reach its nadir, even sometimes 18 to 24 months after the completion of radiation therapy without combined androgen suppression therapy. When combined with hormones, PSA falls abruptely with no possibility to perceive the impact of either hormones or radiation effects on PSA.The optimal value of PSA that should be reached after radiation therapy (nadir) and time to this nadir are still unclear.Even when a satisfactory value of the PSA nadir is reached, on-going variations of the PSA and its “bounce” effects, which occurs in 20% to 40% of the cases.Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy allows one to assess the relative concentration of Choline and Citrate. Choline is a metabolite of whose concentration is often increased in the presence of a tumour, whereas the synthesis and the oxidation of Citrate are two decisive elements of the normal metabolism, functional abilities, growth, reproduction and survival of prostatic cells. This MR technique can be performed in combination with diffusion-weighted MRI and DCE-MRI (multiparametric MRI).The goal of our study was to evaluate the feasibility of a 3D CSI proton MR spectroscopy of the entire prostate gland at 3.0 Tesla without an endorectal coil among patients with a localised prostate cancer treated with radiation therapy, with or without hormones. We first have classified spectra in a 5-point scale (from benign : class I, to malign : class V) based on a control group with radical prostatectomy as the standard of reference. This classification enabled us to establish a strong correlation between malignant spectra or the metabolic tumor volume and clinically validated prognostic factors.In parallel, a prospective clinical trial of which the aim is to Evaluate the Response to Irradiation with proton MR Spectroscopy (ERIS trial) has been set up to follow patients with serial multiparametric MRI over 2 years after radiation therapy. Sextant-biopsies of the prostate were performed at 6 months and 12 months. Preliminary results after one year of follow-up showed a correlation between the Choline value measured in the whole prostate and the PSA value reached one year after radiation therapy. With a longer follow-up, we have performed a new analysis to evaluate the benefit of multiparametric MRI and the place of each sequence to evaluate the radiation response. We found a strong correlation between the PSA value observed at 1 year and the Choline and Citrate values measured as early as 3 months after the completion of radiotherapy, whereas ADC value from diffusion-weighted MRI and the slope of the contrast uptake from DCE-MRI, were not correlated with PSA. All our results confirm that the Choline concentration seems to be a more relevant biomarker to predict an early radiation response. The decrease of the Citrate metabolism could become a new biomarker of individual radiosensitivity among patients with a localized prostate cancer
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Gilles Crehange. Evaluation de la spectroscopie du proton par RMN à 3 Tesla sans antenne endorectale chez les patients présentant un cancer de prostate localisé traité par radiothérapie exclusive. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Bourgogne, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011DIJOS097⟩. ⟨tel-00809064⟩

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