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Optimisation de la structure textile des prothèses vasculaires pour un développement en monocouche des cellules endotheliales

Abstract : Textile vascular prostheses show poor patency rate for smaller diameter grafts (6-8mm). Mainly due to thrombosis or hyperplasia, graft failures can be explained by meagre hemocompatibility. Lack of neoendothelialization of the inner wall of the graft can be one reason explaining this poor hemocompatibility, This project aimed to prove that bare textiles are not a good support to stand endothelial cells' proliferation. Poly(L-latic) acid was therefore chosen to replace protein coating by being formed as a nanofibres mesh on the PET textile prostheses luminal surface. Air jet spinning process was first evaluated in a basic planar model to determined optimal parameters for nanofibres production. Endothelial cells compatibility, adhesion and proliferation were tested. Then air jet spinning was dedicated to tubular shape of textile vascular prostheses. Nanofibres mesh were analysed for chemical and physical properties, and covered graft were tested for water permeability. Lastly, atmospheric pressure plasma treatment was performed to optimize PLLA nanofibres adhesion on PET. Results showed that nanofibre diameters were controlled by polymer concentration. Nanofibre cristallinities depend of spinning parameters. Air jet spinning allows quick covering of textile surfaces with a dense net of nanofibre scelling the inner wall of the prosthesis, even in tubular samples. Moreover, endothelial ceIls show monolayer proliferation on these nanofibres. Finally, Polylactic acid adhesion on PET was optimized with atmospheric pressure plasma. In conclusion, we bring a new solution to cover inner wall of prostheses, allowing a monolayer proliferation of endothelial cells.
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Sébastien François. Optimisation de la structure textile des prothèses vasculaires pour un développement en monocouche des cellules endotheliales. Autre. Université de Haute Alsace - Mulhouse; Université Laval (Québec, Canada), 2009. Français. ⟨NNT : 2009MULH2389⟩. ⟨tel-00590477⟩

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