L'émergence des politiques énergétiques en Pays de la Loire (France). Effets de contexte, potentiels et jeux d'acteurs.

Abstract : As it deals with either global or local energy and climate issues, this thesis is a topical work. In the context of international climate talks, European and national and regional policies, it aims to analyse the local initiatives in the Pays de la Loire. This work focuses on three main assumptions. The first states that renewable energy has been developed in the Pays de la Loire in the wake of local nuclear projects. The second argues that human potentialities are more determining than the physical and geographical energy potentialities of a given territory, at least in this phase of regional awareness encouraged by public policies. The third shows that local pressures have led the Région Pays de la Loire to back the development of renewable energy. Our research focuses on a qualitative approach which is based on numerous interviews and linked to a quantitative approach relying on statistical and cartographic databases. The first part of our work is devoted to the context. It shows that despite the rallying of the scientific community since the 1970's, awareness of climate change due to human activity is rather recent. Europe has played an important role in international climate talks and has set itself ambitious targets (such as energy-climate Package in 2007). However, if certain member States of the E.U., such as Germany, have volunteered to reduce their greenhouse gases emissions and develop renewable energy, other countries like France have been much less incentive. The second and third parts of our work, focusing on the Région Pays de la Loire, highlight that despite real physical potentialities, renewable energy still represents a small part of the whole production. We have established that there is a link between physical potentialities and the number of green equipments. The regional energy policy is rather recent, and has been more favorable to renewable energy and energy saving since the regional political success of the French Green Party in 2004. The rise of associative movements has also played a role in the consideration of energy and climate issues by the Région Pays de la Loire. To organize our last part dealing with local policies, we have constructed a typology based on many interviews. It shows that human potentialities, more than physical ones, can determine the establishment of a local energy policy. The approach of the SyDEV (Syndicat Départemental d'Energie et d'Equipement de la Vendée) is something of an exception since it is initially linked to the willingness to exploit wind-power in order to keep a hand on local wind resources. We have shown that the grounds of local energy policies may diverge, but also result from negative external elements. We have also shown that links exist between anti-nuclear demonstrations and the strong energy policy led by the Pays de Haute Mayenne ; between the pressures exerted by Nantes as the main regional city and the original approach undertaken by the Pays de Grandlieu Machecoul et Logne ; also between the need for local development and the reflection led by the PNR Loire Anjou Touraine. These local energy initiatives sometimes take root in a long history (as in the Pays des Mauges, for example). In addition, our investigation shows movements of various kinds, be they individual or collective. We have also studied the origins of the sensitivity characterizing the pioneers of renewable energy. Finally, our interest in the biggest regional cities has helped us show the examplary nature of Nantes Métropole and the more opportunist approach proposed by the Pays du Mans. Therefore, we may assume that behind local innovations there are men and women as singular wills linked to a political party, to a legacy of environmental or social movements, and to other types of convictions.
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Submitted on : Thursday, November 12, 2009 - 3:39:58 PM
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Isabelle Vaché. L'émergence des politiques énergétiques en Pays de la Loire (France). Effets de contexte, potentiels et jeux d'acteurs.. Géographie. Université du Maine, 2009. Français. ⟨tel-00431585⟩

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