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LOFAR: The LOw-Frequency ARray

M. P. van Haarlem 1 M. W. Wise 1, 2 A. W. Gunst 1 G. Heald 1 J. P. Mckean 1 J. W. T. Hessels 3 A. G. de Bruyn 1 R. Nijboer J. Swinbank 2 R. Fallows 4 M. Brentjens 1 A. Nelles 5 R. Beck 6 H. Falcke 5, 7, 1 R. Fender 8 J. Hörandel L. V. E. Koopmans G. Mann 9 G. Miley H. Röttgering 10 B. W. Stappers 11 R. A. M. J. Wijers 2 S. Zaroubi M. van Den Akker A. Alexov 1 J. Anderson 12 K. Anderson A. van Ardenne M. Arts 13 A. Asgekar 1 I. M. Avruch 14 F. Batejat 12 L. Bähren 2 M. E. Bell 8 M. R. Bell 8 I. van Bemmel P. Bennema M. J. Bentum 1 G. Bernardi P. Best 15 L. Bîrzan A. Bonafede 16 A. -J. Boonstra 1 R. Braun 17 J. Bregman 1 F. Breitling 18 R. H. van de Brink J. Broderick 8 P. C. Broekema W. N. Brouw 19 M. Brüggen 16 H. R. Butcher 1 W. van Cappellen 20 B. Ciardi 12 T. Coenen 1 J. Conway A. Coolen 21 A. Corstanje S. Damstra O. Davies A. T. Deller R. -J. Dettmar G. van Diepen K. Dijkstra 22 P. Donker A. Doorduin J. Dromer M. Drost A. van Duin J. Eislöffel 23 J. van Enst C. Ferrari 24 W. Frieswijk H. Gankema M. A. Garrett 10, 1 F. de Gasperin M. Gerbers 1 E. de Geus 25 Jean-Mathias Grießmeier 26 T. Grit P. Gruppen J. P. Hamaker T. Hassall 11 M. Hoeft 23 H. Holties 1 A. Horneffer A. van der Horst A. van Houwelingen 27 A. Huijgen M. Iacobelli 28, 29 H. Intema N. Jackson V. Jelic 30 A. de Jong 1 E. Juette 31 D. Kant A. Karastergiou 32 A. Koers 33 H. Kollen V. I. Kondratiev 1 E. Kooistra Y. Koopman A. Koster M. Kuniyoshi 7 M. Kramer 34 G. Kuper 1 P. Lambropoulos 1 C. Law 2 J. van Leeuwen 3 J. Lemaitre M. Loose 35 P. Maat 1 G. Macario S. Markoff 2 J. Masters 36 D. Mckay-Bukowski 37 H. Meijering H. Meulman 1 M. Mevius 1 E. Middelberg R. Millenaar J. C. A. Miller-Jones 2 R. N. Mohan 38 J. D. Mol 39 J. Morawietz R. Morganti 19, 1 D. D. Mulcahy E. Mulder 40 H. Munk 1 L. Nieuwenhuis R. van Nieuwpoort J. E. Noordam 1 M. Norden A. Noutsos 7 A. R. Offringa H. Olofsson 41 A. Omar 1, 42 E. Orrú R. Overeem H. Paas 1 M. Pandey-Pommier 43 V. N. Pandey R. Pizzo 1 A. Polatidis 1 D. Rafferty 44 S. Rawlings W. Reich 7 J. -P. de Reijer J. Reitsma 45 A. Renting P. Riemers E. Rol 2 J. W. Romein J. Roosjen M. Ruiter A. Scaife 46 K. van der Schaaf B. Scheers 2 P. Schellart 5 A. Schoenmakers G. Schoonderbeek M. Serylak 26, 47 A. Shulevski J. Sluman 1 O. Smirnov 48 C. Sobey 7 H. Spreeuw 2 M. Steinmetz C. G. M. Sterks 49 H. -J. Stiepel K. Stuurwold Michel Tagger 26 Y. Tang 50 C. Tasse 51 I. Thomas 52 S. Thoudam 5 M. C. Toribio 53 B. van der Tol O. Usov M. van Veelen A. -J. van der Veen 54 S. ter Veen 55 J. P. W. Verbiest 7 R. Vermeulen N. Vermaas C. Vocks C. Vogt M. de Vos E. van der Wal R. van Weeren 1, 56 H. Weggemans P. Weltevrede 11 S. White S. J. Wijnholds 1 T. Wilhelmsson O. Wucknitz 57 S. Yatawatta 19 P. Zarka 51 A. Zensus J. van Zwieten
Abstract : LOFAR, the LOw-Frequency ARray, is a new-generation radio interferometer constructed in the north of the Netherlands and across europe. Utilizing a novel phased-array design, LOFAR covers the largely unexplored low-frequency range from 10-240 MHz and provides a number of unique observing capabilities. Spreading out from a core located near the village of Exloo in the northeast of the Netherlands, a total of 40 LOFAR stations are nearing completion. A further five stations have been deployed throughout Germany, and one station has been built in each of France, Sweden, and the UK. Digital beam-forming techniques make the LOFAR system agile and allow for rapid repointing of the telescope as well as the potential for multiple simultaneous observations. With its dense core array and long interferometric baselines, LOFAR achieves unparalleled sensitivity and angular resolution in the low-frequency radio regime. The LOFAR facilities are jointly operated by the International LOFAR Telescope (ILT) foundation, as an observatory open to the global astronomical community. LOFAR is one of the first radio observatories to feature automated processing pipelines to deliver fully calibrated science products to its user community. LOFAR's new capabilities, techniques and modus operandi make it an important pathfinder for the Square Kilometre Array (SKA). We give an overview of the LOFAR instrument, its major hardware and software components, and the core science objectives that have driven its design. In addition, we present a selection of new results from the commissioning phase of this new radio observatory.
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M. P. van Haarlem, M. W. Wise, A. W. Gunst, G. Heald, J. P. Mckean, et al.. LOFAR: The LOw-Frequency ARray. Astronomy and Astrophysics - A&A, EDP Sciences, 2013, A2, 53 p. ⟨10.1051/0004-6361/201220873⟩. ⟨insu-01288431⟩



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