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A generic and provably convergent Shape-From-Shading Method for Orthographic and Pinhole Cameras

Emmanuel Prados 1 Olivier Faugeras 1 
1 ODYSSEE - Computer and biological vision
DI-ENS - Département d'informatique - ENS Paris, CRISAM - Inria Sophia Antipolis - Méditerranée , ENS-PSL - École normale supérieure - Paris, Inria Paris-Rocquencourt, ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech
Abstract : We describe a mathematical and algorithmic study of the Lambertian "Shape-From-Shading" problem for orthographic and pinhole cameras. Our approach is based upon the notion of viscosity solutions of Hamilton-Jacobi equations. This approach provides a mathematical framework in which we can show that the problem is well-posed (we prove the existence of a solution and we characterize all the solutions). Our contribution is threefold. First, we model the camera both as orthographic and as perspective (pinhole), whereas most authors assume an orthographic projection (see Horn and Brooks (1989) for a survey of the SFS problem up to 1989 and Zhang et al. (1999), Kozera (1998), Durou et al. (2004) for more recent ones); thus we extend the applicability of shape from shading methods to more realistic acquisition models. In particular it extends the work of Prados et al. (2002a) and Rouy and Tourin (1992). We provide some novel mathematical formulations of this problem yielding new partial differential equations. Results about the existence and uniqueness of their solutions are also obtained. Second, by introducing a "generic" Hamiltonian, we define a general framework allowing to deal with both models (orthographic and perspective), thereby simplifying the formalization of the problem. Thanks to this unification, each algorithm we propose can compute numerical solutions corresponding to all the modeling. Third, our work allows us to come up with two new generic algorithms for computing numerical approximations of the "continuous solution of the "Shape-From-Shading" problem as well as a proof of their convergence toward that solution. Moreover, our two generic algorithms are able to deal with discontinuous images as well as images containing black shadows.
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Emmanuel Prados, Olivier Faugeras. A generic and provably convergent Shape-From-Shading Method for Orthographic and Pinhole Cameras. International Journal of Computer Vision, Springer Verlag, 2005, 65 (1/2), pp.97--125. ⟨10.1007/s11263-005-3844-1⟩. ⟨inria-00378704⟩



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