?. ???-?, Foji lingxiang zhi bei Wanli 10 (1582), carved with the footprints of ??kyamuni, in a niche of the st?pa (south side)

S. ?. Zhengxiu-zhuan-bing-shubei-"-?, Jiaqing 3 (1798), commemorates miraculous lights that appeared above Mañju?r?'s Hair St?pa in 1797, pp.37-38, 1996.

O. Katsutoshi and H. Takao, Zheng Sen 1987: 28; Wutai xianzhi, pp.213-218, 1942.

-. Guangxu, 1884) in front of the lokap?las hall; -Two donation steles dated Guangxu 14 (1888) (text in WTSYJ 1997-1, 57) and Minguo, 1917.

O. Katsutoshi and H. Takao, 39, 43; Wutai xianzhi, Zheng Lin, pp.245-247, 1942.

. General and . Of-wutaishan, Blue' monasteries of the late Qing period. © Isabelle Charleux flying across the sky and landing in the village. The villagers erected a st?pa using this upper part. Later a statue of Mañju?r? or Avalokite?vara in nanmu ?? wood was carved to 'fix' the summit of the st?pa, so that it would not fly off somewhere else

-. Chinese-stele and . Kangxi, Zahuaan bei " ????; -A Chinese stele dated Kangxi, Ta'ergou Zahuaan bei " ??????? (text in Zhou Zhuying, pp.40-73, 1711.

T. Daij? and S. Tadashi, juan 7: 87; Chen Xingya 1936: 39-40; Ono Katsutoshi and Hibino Takao 1942: 243-244, 321, pl. 46; Gao Henian, Lamotte, vol.1960, issue.208 24, pp.22-25, 1928.

D. Jinjin, Encounter between Mañju?r? with Buddhap?lita, cave no. 61, southern section of the western wall, Dunhuang (Mogaoku), Gansu Province, late tenth century. (Right) Entrance of the Boresi, Jingangku. © Ono Katsutoshi and Hibino, pp.78-87, 1942.

. Puleyuan, Detail of the 1846 Cifusi map, print preserved in Güden süme, Jaya-yin küriye, Tsetserleg, Republic of Mongolia, 2009.

?. Qixiandong and ?. , Seven Immortals Cave) on the way between Pusading and the Central Terrace (description in Li Xiangzhi, 1932.

. Shanxi-tongzhi, 1892]: juan 57, 4117; Zhang Yuanji and Zhuang Yu 1925: pl. 29; Tokiwa Daij? and Sekino Tadashi 1928: 29, pl. 16, pp.145-150, 1932.

?. Chaoyangdong and ?. Cave, Eight Daoist Immortals; behind was a 500-meter dark corridor leading to a chamber with three stone 'natural' Buddhas (i.e., not man-made) and many statues. The sounds of water and wind echoed in the grotto because of a crack in the stone: it was said that the cave communicated with Zhenhaisi's haiyan and allowed water to flow through it, 1932.

C. Appendix, Main Travelers to Wutaishan Who Left Records in the Qing and Republican Periods The main records are in bold letters. Travelers are listed by the date of their visit, and their traveling accounts are in brackets

G. Yanwu and ?. , 1613-1682), literati and poet known for his anticlerical and anti-Manchu views, 1956.

G. Shiqi and ?. , 1644-1703), literati, minister, and private secretary of Emperor Kangxi. He accompanied the emperor on his first tour to Wutaishan, 1700.

W. Chang and ?. , Vice Minister of the Right Wing (you shilang ???) at the Ministry of Justice, leading scholar and poet. He traveled with Emperor Qianlong on his sixth visit, pp.1725-1806, 1792.

J. Gilmour, Scottish Protestant missionary who served with the London Missionary Society (Gilmour 1970 [1883] and 1893) He traveled with the British Protestant missionary, sinologist, linguist and philologist Rev, Dr. Joseph Edkins (1823-1905), and Dr. Wheeler, agent for the American Bible Society in China, pp.1843-1891, 1878.

N. Grigorj and . Potanin, Russian explorer, ethnographer and folklorist, who traveled in Shanxi with Augustus I. Skassi, 1835.

D. Pokotilov, attaché to the Russian diplomatic mission of Beijing, and Fellow of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society

W. William, Russian Army officer on a mission of exploration through Central Asia and Northern China, who would later become statesman and president of Finland, 1867.

Z. Dungu and ?. ??, 1866-1933), professor at Beijing University, geographer and Buddhist layman from, Jiangsu, 1911.

H. Hackman, 1864-1935), missionary and scholar (Hackman, 1912.

J. Weiqiao, Chinese lay Buddhist famous for having popularized meditation practices, and author of books on Buddhism and Buddhist studies (Jiang Weiqiao, 1872.

. Dr, Lewis Hodous (1872-1949), American missionary to China

H. Zhang-lianjue and ?. , 1875-1937), female Buddhist lay practitioner who in the same year set up an academy for female Buddhists in, Macau and Hong Kong. She traveled to Wutaishan with her husband He Dong Jueshi ?? ?? (He Zhang Lianjue, 1934.

C. Xingya, 1882-1959) (Chen Xingya, 1936.

E. C. John and . Blofeld, British scholar of Asian religions. He was a disciple of Master Xuyun and was trained in Chan meditation as well as in Vajray?na teachings, pp.1935-1936, 1913.

O. Katsutoshi and H. Takao, Japanese historians of China (Ono Katsutoshi and Hibino Takao, 1942.

!. Om-suvasti and . Prostrate, the supreme lama Mañju?r? who, with a body of one that produces [light] to illuminate the brilliant interstices of the Three Realms [the realms of desire, of form, and the formless realm], who shows [himself in] the appearance of the Threefold Body, [and before the one who] unites [in himself] the essence of the Triple Gem [the Buddha, the Dharma and the Sangha] In the Huayanjing 5 it is said In a land northeast of here there is a certain place called the 'Cool and Pure Mountains.' In the future 6 many bodhisattvas [will] reside there. Now the Holy Mañju?r? bodhisattva, together with a retinue of ten thousand companion bodhisattvas, dwells there and preaches the Dharma Also, from the [Mañju?r? dharma] ratnagarbha dh?ra?? s?tra, [before] he passed away [Buddha] proclaimed to King Jingang miji (Vajrap??i): " After my parinirv?na, on the northeastern edge of Jambudv?pa [the Rose Apple Continent there is a place named Five-Peak Mountain When he preaches the Dharma for the sake of all sentient beings, innumerable deities (tngri, lit. 'skies') and n?gas [water snake deities] of the Eight Classes, together with their retinues, pay homage and give offerings to him, this place dwells the youthful Mañju?r?

. Mañju, Monk (gelüng) Lhunrub, the engraver, from the Sengge Department [of] the ?abi (estate) 9 of the Holy Jecündamba of Yeke Küriye (Urga), the master of donations, with complete faith have carved [this map] in the treasury of Asaraltu buyantu süme [i.e., Cifusi] and offered it, Blessings! make a statue at the foot of Guanyindong Hill, consecrating statues at Shifangtang, and receiving a consultation at the Tibetan clinic of Shifangtang or Guanyindong

. Lim, Khejok Rinpoché's guide advises Tibetan pilgrims to visit nineteen sites within three days plus the Five Terraces, which means spending about ten to thirty minutes in every monastery. A Tibetan guidebook summarized by Duan Jinjin (2008: 78) lists nine places for Tibetan pilgrims to see: 1) the Five Terraces; 2) N?ray??a Cave; 3) Jingangku; 4) Shancaidong and its charnel ground; 5) Qingliangsi; 6) Pusading; 7) the Great White St?pa; 8) Buddha's footprint at the Great White St?pa; 9) Mañju?r?'s Hair St?pa, 1999.

. Ca, 1736: Lao-zang-que-pei ? ? ? ? (bLo-bzang chos-'phel) (he is mentioned in the 1726 stele of restoration of the Faxiangsi/Tiewasi as Luo-zang-chenpen ????, cf, pp.1726-57, 1998.

?. Chen-lai-da-er-lai, 1760s: Gai-li-chen-pian-er ????? 11

?. Luo-san-dan-pian, A-wang-qing-ba ???? 17 Zhang-yang-mo-la ???? 18. Shao-ba-chun-zhu ???? 19. Long-ba-que-pei ???? 20. A-wang-sang-bu ???? 21. Jia-chan-sang-bu ???? 22. 1919-1936: Luo-sang-ba-sang ???? (< bLo-bzang dpal-sangs, 1882-1955), a Tor?uud Mongol (see Fischer 1923: 98) 23, 1936.

R. Alley, R. Wu, and T. Shan, The Sacred Mountains of China: A Trip to, The China Journal, vol.22, issue.3, pp.114-121, 1935.

L. Altanzayaa, Mongolyn burkhany shashny tüükhend kholbogdokh Utain tukhai zarim medee " [Some informations about Utai in relation to the history of Mongol Buddhism], Studia Historica Instituti Historiae Academiae Scientiarum Mongoli, vol.32, pp.138-148, 2000.

A. Jianhua and ?. , Beixin Guyue du zhongsheng " ??????? [Life of Beixin Guyue]. Wutaishan yanjiu ?????, pp.26-28, 2002.

S. Andrews, Tales of Conjured Temples (huasi) in Qing Period Mountain Gazetteers, Journal of the International Association of Tibetan Studies, vol.6, pp.134-162, 2011.

B. Meichu and ?. , Lu Yu Jin sansheng zhi ?????? [Annals of three provinces: Shandong, Henan, and Shanxi] Beijing: Beiping shifan daxue shidixi (Zhonghua Minguo shengqu quan zhi ????????, Shanxisheng zhi " ????. ? Reed. Beijing: Zhongyang dixueshe, 1925.

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J. Blofeld, The Festival of the Sacred Mountain, China Journal, vol.28, pp.25-37, 1938.

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D. Jinjin and ?. , Wutaishan yu Zangchuan fojiao shengji " ?????????? [Wutaishan and sacred historical sites of Tibetan Buddhism], Xizang daxue xuebao ??? ???, pp.75-78, 2008.

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E. S. Fischer, The Sacred Wu Tai Shan in Connection with Modern Travel from Tai yuan fu via Mount Wu Tai to the Mongolian Border, 1923.

?. Foguang-dacidian, Great dictionary of Buddhism (compiled by) the Foguang (Academy)]. 1989: Taipei: Taiwan foguang shan chubanshe, 1989.

G. Henian and ?. , Ming shan youfang ji ????? [Record of visits to famous mountains]. Beijing: Zongjiao wenhua chubanshe, 1949.

G. Minghe and ?. , Bishansi jianzhu yu suxiang gaishu " ?????????? [Architecture and painted sculptures of Bishansi]. Wutaishan yanjiu, pp.9-12, 1996.

G. Minghe, ?. , L. Gengmei, and ?. , Yuanzhaosi jianzhu yu suxiang gaishu " ?????????? [Architecture and painted sculptures of Yuanzhaosi, pp.24-29, 1997.

G. Shiqi and ?. , Hucong xixun rilu " ?????? [Daily record of following in the retinue of Kangxi's Western Tour], 27 fol, Qingyin tangji ? ???, ca. 1700? Ed. Siku quanshu Taibei: Xin wenfeng chuban gongsi, pp.1644-1703, 1989.

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L. Goodrich and . Carrington, The Revolving Book-Case in China, Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, vol.7, issue.2, pp.130-161, 1942.
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G. Yanwu and ?. , Wutaishan ji ???? [Notes on Wutaishan], seventeenth century ? In Gu tinglin wenji ?????, Taipei: Xinxing shuju (transl. in Inscribed Landscapes: Travel Writing from Imperial China with annotations and an introduction by, pp.2-4, 1613.

G. Qingliang-zhuan and ?. , Expanded record of Clear and Cold] 1060, By Yanyi ??. T, vol.51, pp.1101-1127, 2099.

G. He and ?. ?. , Nanshansi jianzhu yu suxiang gaishu, Architecture and painted sculptures of Nanshansi]. Wutaishan yanjiu ?????, pp.20-25, 1997.

H. Hackman, A German Scholar in the East: Travel Scenes and Reflections, transl. from German by Daisie Rommel, 1912.

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H. Hardacre, The cave and the womb world, Japanese Journal of Religious Studies, vol.10, issue.2-3, pp.149-176, 1983.
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H. Zhang-lianjue and ?. , Ming shan youji ???? [Record of travels to famous mountains]. Hong Kong: Donglian jueyuan (preface dated 1933, pp.67-73, 1934.

W. Heissig, Die Pekinger lamaistischen Blockdrucke in mongolischer Sprache Materialien zur mongolischen Literaturgeschichte, 1954.

N. Heller, Visualizing Pilgrimage And Mapping Experience: Mount Wutai On The Silk Road, The Journey of Maps and Images on the Silk Road, pp.29-50, 2008.
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P. Ho, Building for Glitter and Eternity: The Works of the Late Ming Master Builder Miaofeng on Wutai shan, Orientations, vol.27, issue.5, pp.67-73, 1996.

. Iledkel-?astir, Jarli?-iyar to?ta?a?san ?ada?adu Mong?ul qotung ayima?-un vang güng-üd-ün iledkel ?astir-un qorin ?urabdu?ar debter, pp.1779-1789, 1998.

?. Ed, Menggu huibu wanggong biaozhuan ???????? [Genealogical tables and biographies of princes and dukes of the Mongol and Türkic tribes] 1, Bao Wenhan ?? ? and Qi Chaoketu ????, 1998.

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C. Irving and . Johnston, Wu-Ta'i-Shan and the Dalai Lama, The New China Review, pp.151-163, 1919.

J. Weiqiao and ?. , Wutaishan jiyou ????? [Travel record to Wutaishan], juan 10, pp.50-65, 1872.

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G. Kara, The Mongol and Manchu Manuscripts and Blockprints in the Library of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences Budapest: Akademiai Kiadó Books of the Mongolian Nomads. More than Eight Centuries of Writing Mongolian, 2000.

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É. Lamotte, Mañju?r?, pp.1-96, 1960.

F. D. Lessing, The Question of Nicodemus Studia Altaica. Festschrift für Nikolaus Poppe zum 60. Geburtstag am 8, pp.95-99, 1957.

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L. Xi and ?. , Lama Ge-sang " ????. Minzu tuanjie ????, pp.38-39, 1994.

L. Xiangzhi and ?. , Wutaishan youji ????? [Travel record of Wutaishan], 1932.

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?. Miaozhou, Meng Zang fojiao shi ????? [History of Tibeto-Mongol Buddhism], 1935, 7 juan, Yangzhou: Jiangsu Guangling guji keyinshe, 1935.

. Mi?vacir, Mergen-i bayasqa?ci ca?an teüke: Ala?a qosi?un-u bara?un güng-ün iledkel ?astir [White history that rejoices the sages: Report of the Western Duke of Ala?an Banner]. Höhhot: Öbür mong?ul-un arad-un keblel-ün qoriya, 1942.

M. He, ?. , H. Yu, and ?. , Pusading de jianzhu yu suxiang tedian " ???? ??????? [Architecture and painted sculptures of Pusading, pp.18-27, 1996.

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