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European aerosol phenomenology − 8: Harmonised source apportionment of organic aerosol using 22 Year-long ACSM/AMS datasets

Gang Chen 1 Francesco Canonaco 1, 2 Anna Tobler 1, 2 Wenche Aas 3 Andres Alastuey 4 James Allan 5 Samira Atabakhsh 6 Minna Aurela 7 Urs Baltensperger 1 Aikaterini Bougiatioti 8 Joel de Brito 9 Darius Ceburnis 10 Benjamin Chazeau 1, 11 Hasna Chebaicheb 9, 12 Kaspar Daellenbach 1 Mikael Ehn 13 Imad El Haddad 1 Konstantinos Eleftheriadis 14 Olivier Favez 12 Harald Flentje 15 Anna Font 16 Kirsten Fossum 17 Evelyn Freney 18 Maria Gini 14 David Green 16 Liine Heikkinen 13 Hartmut Herrmann 6 Athina-Cerise Kalogridis 14 Hannes Keernik 19 Radek Lhotka 20 Chunshui Lin 17 Chris Lunder 3 Marek Maasikmets 21 Manousos Manousakas 1 Nicolas Marchand 11 Cristina Marin 22, 23 Luminita Marmureanu 22 Nikolaos Mihalopoulos 8 Griša Močnik 24, 25 Jaroslaw Nęcki 26 Colin O'Dowd 17 Jurgita Ovadnevaite 17 Thomas Peter 27 Jean-Eudes Petit 28 Michael Pikridas 29 Stephen Matthew Platt 3 Petra Pokorná 20 Laurent Poulain 6 Max Priestman 16 Véronique Riffault 9 Matteo Rinaldi 30 Kazimierz Różański 31 Jaroslav Schwarz 20 Jean Sciare 29 Leïla Simon 28, 12 Alicja Skiba 28 Jay Slowik 1 Yulia Sosedova 2 Iasonas Stavroulas 32, 29 Katarzyna Styszko 26 Erik Teinemaa 33 Hilkka Timonen 7 Anja Tremper 16 Jeni Vasilescu 22 Marta Via 34 Petr Vodička 19 Alfred Wiedensohler 6 Olga Zografou 14 María Cruz Minguillón 34, * André S.H. Prévôt 1, * 
* Corresponding author
Abstract : Organic aerosol (OA) is a key component of total submicron particulate matter (PM1), and comprehensive knowledge of OA sources across Europe is crucial to mitigate PM1 levels. Europe has a well-established air quality research infrastructure from which yearlong datasets using 21 aerosol chemical speciation monitors (ACSMs) and 1 aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) were gathered during 2013–2019. It includes 9 non-urban and 13 urban sites. This study developed a state-of-the-art source apportionment protocol to analyse long-term OA mass spectrum data by applying the most advanced source apportionment strategies (i.e., rolling PMF, ME-2, and bootstrap). This harmonised protocol was followed strictly for all 22 datasets, making the source apportionment results more comparable. In addition, it enables quantification of the most common OA components such as hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), biomass burning OA (BBOA), cooking-like OA (COA), more oxidised-oxygenated OA (MO-OOA), and less oxidised-oxygenated OA (LO-OOA). Other components such as coal combustion OA (CCOA), solid fuel OA (SFOA: mainly mixture of coal and peat combustion), cigarette smoke OA (CSOA), sea salt (mostly inorganic but part of the OA mass spectrum), coffee OA, and ship industry OA could also be separated at a few specific sites. Oxygenated OA (OOA) components make up most of the submicron OA mass (average = 71.1%, range from 43.7 to 100%). Solid fuel combustion-related OA components (i.e., BBOA, CCOA, and SFOA) are still considerable with in total 16.0% yearly contribution to the OA, yet mainly during winter months (21.4%). Overall, this comprehensive protocol works effectively across all sites governed by different sources and generates robust and consistent source apportionment results. Our work presents a comprehensive overview of OA sources in Europe with a unique combination of high time resolution (30–240 min) and long-term data coverage (9–36 months), providing essential information to improve/validate air quality, health impact, and climate models.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, July 26, 2022 - 3:26:51 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, August 3, 2022 - 3:06:47 AM


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Gang Chen, Francesco Canonaco, Anna Tobler, Wenche Aas, Andres Alastuey, et al.. European aerosol phenomenology − 8: Harmonised source apportionment of organic aerosol using 22 Year-long ACSM/AMS datasets. Environment International, Elsevier, 2022, 166, pp.107325. ⟨10.1016/j.envint.2022.107325⟩. ⟨hal-03738357⟩



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