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Optimal Experience in Adult Learning: Conception and Validation of the Flow in Education Scale (EduFlow-2)

Abstract : While the formulation of Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi’s theory of flow, including the experience dimensions, has remained stable since its introduction in 1975, its dedicated measurement tools, research methodologies, and fields of application, have evolved considerably. Among these, education stands out as one of the most active. In recent years, researchers have examined flow in the context of other theoretical constructs such as motivation. The resulting work in the field of education has led to the development of a new model for understanding flow experience in education, specifically dedicated to adult learning. As a result of both a meticulous analysis of existing models and consideration of more recent developments, a new flow scale has thus been developed. The aim of this study is therefore twofold: to validate the new flow measurement scale dedicated to the educational environment, EduFlow-2, and to test a new theoretical model. Students taking a course (N=6,596), some on-site and others in a MOOC, participated. Several scales were administered online at the end of the participants’ course during the 2017 academic year. The factor structure of EduFlow-2 was tested using Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling. Several models were tested. The model with a second-order factor best fit the data. We tested the invariance of the flow scale measure for gender and for the type of training (MOOC/on-site). We were able to show that the flow scale is invariant of the modalities of these two variables. Results revealed good psychometric qualities for the scale, making it suitable for both on-site and distance learning. The analysis also revealed significant relationships with the classic variables of motivation, self-efficacy, learning climate, and life satisfaction. Furthermore, all four dimensions of the model were found to be adequate and consistent with the underlying theoretical arguments. In the end, this new, short flow scale and the theoretical model were demonstrated to be promising for future studies in the field of education.
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Contributor : Jean Heutte Connect in order to contact the contributor
Submitted on : Sunday, December 19, 2021 - 11:46:55 AM
Last modification on : Monday, May 9, 2022 - 10:26:05 AM

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Jean Heutte, Fabien Fenouillet, Charles Martin-Krumm, Gary Gute, Annelies Raes, et al.. Optimal Experience in Adult Learning: Conception and Validation of the Flow in Education Scale (EduFlow-2). Frontiers in Psychology, Frontiers Media, 2021, section Educational Psychology, 12, pp.1-12. ⟨10.3389/fpsyg.2021.828027⟩. ⟨hal-03494446⟩

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