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Defeating malaria in the North-East region : the forerunner for malaria elimination in India

Résumé : India is a malaria endemic country which is targeting malaria elimination by 2027. Transmission intensities are low-to-moderate depending on the region supported by multiple disease vectors. Among these, comparatively North-East India contributes to high proportions of malaria cases annually, the majority of which are due to Plasmodium falciparum (90/100). Anopheles minimus and An. baimaii (sibling species in the An. dirus complex) are widely prevalent and incriminated as vectors of malaria. Number of intervention tools were field-evaluated beginning 1988 to date against disease vectors and causative parasites to contain the spread of malaria. These included (i) insecticide-treated netting materials (ITNs) for vector control, (ii) rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for in situ diagnosis, and (iii) therapeutic efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) for improved drug-policy; all of which were incorporated in healthcare services resulting in substantial disease transmission reduction. Populations of both An. minimus and An. baimaii were observed depleting, instead An. culicifacies s.l. recorded to be fast invading degraded forests and assessed to be resistant to multiple insecticides. Of the two prevalent Plasmodium species, while P. vivax continued to be susceptible to chloroquine therapy, P. falciparum had emerged resistant to most available antimalarial drugs except ACTs over space and time and spreading to peninsular India threatening elimination efforts. Disease transmission trends were observed to be declining for which the state of Assam has made huge strides reporting steady fall in cases each passing year vis-`a-vis Meghalaya, Mizoram and Tripura (all sharing international border with Bangladesh), in which malaria trans-mission remained uninterrupted. Consequently, control of malaria in the North-East region of India is of im-mediate importance and needs prioritization for intensified disease surveillance and control interventions coupled with improved access to healthcare services mitigating risk of disease outbreaks and spread of drug- resistant malaria helping realize the goal of malaria elimination in the country.
Mots-clés : INDE ASSAM
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Submitted on : Tuesday, September 7, 2021 - 7:48:34 PM
Last modification on : Friday, August 5, 2022 - 11:00:41 AM

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V. Dev, Sylvie Manguin. Defeating malaria in the North-East region : the forerunner for malaria elimination in India. Acta Tropica, Elsevier, 2021, 222, 106040 [10 p. en ligne]. ⟨10.1016/j.actatropica.2021.106040⟩. ⟨hal-03337330⟩

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