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Assainissement dans la parcelle et quantification des boues de vidanges dans la ville de Yaoundé au Cameroun

Abstract : This study aims to describe the onsite sanitation and the quantification of faecal sludge in the city of Yaoundé. The city of Yaoundé, The population of Yaoundé City is about 3.1 million inhabitants in 2018 , will reach 4.7 million in 2030 with an average annual growth rate of 3.5%. The city of Yaoundé is dominated by an autonomous sanitation system which is used by 99% of households. Domestic wastewater of the city is mainly dealt through on-site sanitation systems represented by septic tanks, traditional pit latrines, ventilated improved pit latrines, etc A survey was carried out among 1100 households in the city of Yaoundé. The choice of household to be surveyed was made according to the stratified sample method. It is reviewed, the methods of quantification of existing used sludge, in order to choose a method adapted to the context of the city of Yaoundé. Several criteria are analyzed to access to the sludge produced by households: the existence or not of roads, their state of deterioration, the types of sanitation structure, the position of the structure in relation to the waterways, etc. Among the methods for quantifying the sludge explored, we found that "the specific production method" is more adapted in the context. But this method has been revised in order to integrate the analyzing elements on the accessibility of the facilities. The application of the method used has been done on 120 pit emptying during two months (june and july 2018). The choice of these pits as been done hazardly on the potential of 600 pit emptying in the city of Yaoundé during this period. The accumulation rate of faecal sludge in the city of Yaoundé is of 0.356 l/hab/jour for septic tanks and of 0.21 l/hab/jour for pit latrines. It equally varies according to the luxury of the habitat. At the scale of the city, in 2018, 41% of single pits and 84% of septic tanks can be drained by trucks. The interval between two emptying is of 7 years for septic tanks and 10 years for pit latrines. Finally, the city of Yaoundé produces 2018, 283 175 m3 of faecal sludge per year, thus 51.7% can be drained by truck (146 514 m3), either 401 m3/jour. Only 52.4% are collected and (210 m3/jour) and sent-on the site of unloading of NOMAYOS.
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https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-03300476
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Submitted on : Thursday, November 18, 2021 - 1:49:48 PM
Last modification on : Monday, March 28, 2022 - 8:28:04 AM

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Marie Solange Mbang, Emmanuel Ngnikam, Boniface Efon, Pierre Meukam, Stéphane Fokou. Assainissement dans la parcelle et quantification des boues de vidanges dans la ville de Yaoundé au Cameroun. Environnement, Ingénierie & Développement, A paraître, 85, pp.3-11. ⟨10.46298/eid.2021.8319⟩. ⟨hal-03300476v3⟩

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