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Adapting French COVID-19 vaccination campaign duration to variant dissemination

Abstract : The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 virus has caused a major international health crisis with serious consequences in terms of public health and economy. In France, two lockdown periods were decided in 2020 to avoid the saturation of intensive care units (ICU) and an increase in mortality. The rapid dissemination of variant SARS-CoV-2 VOC 202012/01 has strongly influenced the course of the epidemic. Vaccines have been rapidly developed. Their efficacy against the severe forms of the disease has been established, and their efficacy against disease transmission is under evaluation. The aim of this paper is to compare the efficacy of several vaccination strategies in the presence of variants in controlling the COVID-19 epidemic through population immunity. An agent-based model was designed to simulate with different scenarios the evolution of COVID-19 pandemic in France over 2021 and 2022. The simulations were carried out ignoring the occurrence of variants then taking into account their diffusion over time. The expected effects of three Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions (Relaxed-NPI, Intensive-NPI, and Extended-NPI) to limit the epidemic extension were compared. The expected efficacy of vaccines were the values recently estimated in preventing severe forms of the disease (75% and 94%) for the current used vaccines in France (Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna since January 11, 2021, and AstraZeneca since February 2, 2021). All vaccination campaigns reproduced an advanced age-based priority advised by the Haute Autorité de Santé. Putative reductions of virus transmission were fixed at 0, 50, 75 and 90%. The effects of four vaccination campaign durations (6-month, 12-month, 18-month and 24-month) were compared. In the absence of vaccination, the presence of variants led to reject the Relaxed-NPI because of a high expected number of deaths (170 to 210 thousands) and the significant overload of ICUs from which 35 thousand patients would be deprived. In comparison with the situation without vaccination, the number of deaths was divided by 7 without ICU saturation with a 6-month vaccination campaign. A 12-month campaign would divide the number of death by 3 with Intensive-NPI and by 6 with Extended-NPI (the latter being necessary to avoid ICU saturation). With 18-month and 24-month vaccination campaigns without Extended-NPI, the number of deaths and ICU admissions would explode. Among the four compared strategies the 6-month vaccination campaign seems to be the best response to changes in the dynamics of the epidemic due to the variants. The race against the COVID-19 epidemic is a race of vaccination strategy. Any further vaccination delay would increase the need of strengthened measures such as Extended-NPI to limit the number of deaths and avoid ICU saturation.
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https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-03294952
Contributor : Christophe Rigotti <>
Submitted on : Wednesday, July 21, 2021 - 6:31:41 PM
Last modification on : Thursday, September 16, 2021 - 3:54:05 PM

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  • HAL Id : hal-03294952, version 1

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Simon Pageaud, Nicolas Ponthus, Romain Gauchon, Catherine Pothier, Christophe Rigotti, et al.. Adapting French COVID-19 vaccination campaign duration to variant dissemination. [Research Report] Université Lyon 1; Ecole Centrale de Lyon; INSA Lyon. 2021. ⟨hal-03294952⟩

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