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SD-Regular Transducer Expressions for Aperiodic Transformations

Abstract : FO transductions, aperiodic deterministic two-way transducers, as well as aperiodic streaming string transducers are all equivalent models for first order definable functions. In this paper, we solve the problem of expressions capturing first order definable functions, thereby generalizing the seminal SF=AP (star-free expressions = aperiodic languages) result of Schützenberger. Our result also generalizes a lesser known characterization by Schützenberger of aperiodic languages by SD-regular expressions (SD=AP). We show that every first order definable function over finite words captured by an aperiodic deterministic two-way transducer can be described with an SD-regular transducer expression (SDRTE). An SDRTE is a regular expression where Kleene stars are used in a restricted way: they can appear only on aperiodic languages which are prefix codes of bounded synchronization delay. SDRTEs are constructed from simple functions using the combinators unambiguous sum (deterministic choice), Hadamard product, and unambiguous versions of the Cauchy product and the k-chained Kleene-star, where the star is restricted as mentioned. In order to construct an SDRTE associated with an aperiodic deterministic two-way transducer, (i) we concretize Schützenberger's SD=AP result, by proving that aperiodic languages are captured by SD-regular expressions which are unambiguous and stabilising; (ii) by structural induction on the unambiguous, stabilising SD-regular expressions describing the domain of the transducer, we construct SDRTEs. Finally, we also look at various formalisms equivalent to SDRTEs which use the function composition, allowing to trade the k-chained star for a 1-star.
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https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-03283013
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Submitted on : Monday, July 12, 2021 - 12:26:54 PM
Last modification on : Friday, August 5, 2022 - 2:58:08 PM
Long-term archiving on: : Wednesday, October 13, 2021 - 6:07:02 PM

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Luc Dartois, Paul Gastin, Shankara Narayanan. SD-Regular Transducer Expressions for Aperiodic Transformations. 36th Annual Symposium on Logic in Computer Science (LICS'2021), Jun 2021, Rome, Italy. ⟨10.1109/LICS52264.2021.9470738⟩. ⟨hal-03283013⟩

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