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Les oeuvres pharmacologiques de Galien dans l’enseignement, l’édition et la pratique de la médecine en France au seizième siècle

Daniel Béguin 1
1 Science des textes anciens
AOROC - Archéologies d'Orient et d'Occident et Sciences des textes
Abstract : Before the publication of the first edition of the Complete Works of Galen by Alde Manuce in 1525, the most widely used pharmacological works were those of Arab authors. Then, the Greek authors benefited from a renewed interest which brought them back gradually to equality with the Arabs. From 1534, the balance was upset in their favor. Around 1575, the university teaching programs of pharmacology were modified, and Arab authors disappeared from teaching in France.The French university held the monopoly of the examination for all the students who intended to practice a medical specialty. But the teaching was aimed at two different audiences. The doctors, who were permeable to the influence of the humanist current of the Renaissance, showed themselves ready to renew the teaching of pharmacy by having recourse to Greek sources. The apothecaries, on the other hand, saw pharmaceutical knowledge as purely technical, eclectic and cumulative.Tensions existed between the Faculty of Medicine of Paris, traditionalist and galenist, and the University of Montpellier, influenced by Hippocrates and open-minded to innovations.The works of Galen, in pharmacy, triumphed when they appeared to be more modern than those of Arab authors, but their victory was quickly called into question by the emergence of new practices. In the mid-16th century, in botany, teachers preferred to study Dioscorides, whose texts were accompanied by illustrations. In the field of pharmaceutical preparations, the spread of diseases before which galenic medicine was powerless, favored the use of mineral substances, which the Arabs had already used in the past, but to which the action of alchemists gave a new youth.
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Daniel Béguin. Les oeuvres pharmacologiques de Galien dans l’enseignement, l’édition et la pratique de la médecine en France au seizième siècle. Armelle Debru. Galen On Pharmacology. Philosophy, History and Medicine, Proceedings of the Vth International Galen Colloquium,, 16, Brill, pp.283-300, 1997, Studies in Ancient Medicine, 978-90-04-10403-7. ⟨10.1163/9789004377431_014⟩. ⟨hal-03177651⟩

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