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Elutriate preparation affects embryo development test with Paracentrotus lividus: An in-depth study on the differences between two protocols and three different sediment/water mixing times

Abstract : Coastal areas are under continuous and increasing pressure from different human activities. A mixture of contaminants (e.g. hydrocarbons, pesticides, persistent organic pollutants (POPs), emerging contaminants, and others), originating mainly from populated, industrialised and agricultural areas, can reach the marine environment through different means such as wastewater discharge, soil runoffs, leaching from agriculture, and volatilisation/deposition. In this context, marine sediments have increasingly been considered repositories for a variety of pollutants that can accumulate and be stored for long periods, acting as a secondary source of contaminants during subsequent dredging operation or vessel manoeuvring. Chemical and ecotoxicological analyses of sediments are routinely conducted to evaluate the potential hazard/risk to the environment, either on bulk sediment or elutriate. In general, sediment elutriates are commonly prepared according to ASTM Guide even if alternative protocols are proposed by USACE for the various condition that they have to represent. The goal of the present study was to determine if the toxicological properties of ASTMprepared elutriates are comparable to those obtained from the USACE protocol. Sediment coming from 3 harbours (Olbia, Cagliari, and Toulon), as part of the "Se.D.Ri.Port" Interreg Project, were processed to obtain elutriates according to ASTM Guide and USACE Dredging Elutriate protocol and tested with the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus embryo development test. Moreover, the significance of different stirring times of water/sediment mixture (1 h, 3 h, and 24 h) was tested with both the ASTM and USACE protocol. In addition to the biological analysis, for each sediment sample, heavy metals concentration, granulometry, and organic matter were determined. Even if for the ports of Toulon and Cagliari, the ASTM and USACE elutriates showed comparable results with P. lividus bioassay, for the port of Olbia the two protocols showed different criticalities. Preliminary results show that for the site Olbia elutriates prepared with the USACE protocol resulted in higher toxicity than elutriates obtained with ASTM (p < 0.001). In conclusion, differences in preparation protocols appear to be significant and can lead to different results in biological testing. To overcome this problem and to obtain more reliable evaluations of risk to the environment, standardisation and regulation must be the next goals in sediment management procedure.
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Contributor : Benjamin Misson <>
Submitted on : Monday, February 22, 2021 - 8:53:07 AM
Last modification on : Friday, February 26, 2021 - 3:02:40 AM

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Davide Sartori, Simona Macchia, Nicolas Layglon, Sébastien d'Onofrio, Benjamin Misson, et al.. Elutriate preparation affects embryo development test with Paracentrotus lividus: An in-depth study on the differences between two protocols and three different sediment/water mixing times. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, Elsevier, 2021, ⟨10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112010⟩. ⟨hal-03148212⟩

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