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Les élections, principal théâtre de la crise de l’État égyptien

Abstract : The party system represents a privileged observation post for studying the systemic crisis of the Egyptian state. At the same time, it constitutes an arena in which the state seeks to resolve this crisis through elections, in order to find a new model for its relations with society. The former hegemonic party (the National Democratic Party, NDP) had entered into crisis as early as in the 1990s, due to the rise of new social elites, mainly businessmen. At the same time, the opposition parties were too weak to attract these new elites, or even to play a role in expressing social demand. They also proved unable to fill the vacuum left by the dissolution of the NDP in 2011, leaving the field open to political Islam, despite the growth of the electorate and the politicisation of the vote during the period 2011-2013. But supported mainly by the poor and marginalised areas in the South and along the country’s borders, Islamists had to face hostility from the people in the heart of Egypt (Cairo, Alexandria, the Delta and the Canal) when they came to power in 2012. Since their fall in 2013, the regime has tried to set up different models for linking the state and society: the formation of a new elite through the creation of the Future of the Homeland Party, a national coalition of existing secular parties, or the merging of the aforesaid parties into three or four entities. So far, all these attempts have failed, and a new model for the relationship between the Egyptian state and its society has yet to be found.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, February 2, 2021 - 11:44:17 AM
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Clément Steuer. Les élections, principal théâtre de la crise de l’État égyptien. Maghreb-Machrek, Eska, 2020, Les bouleversements politiques en Afrique du Nord au prisme de l’analyse électorale, N°243 (1), pp.41-55. ⟨10.3917/machr.243.0041⟩. ⟨hal-03128464⟩

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