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Calibration of the underground muon detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

Alexander Aab Pedro Abreu Marco Aglietta Justin M Albury Ingomar Allekotte Alejandro Almela Jaime Alvarez-Muñiz Rafael Alves Batista Gioacchino Alex Anastasi Luis Anchordoqui Belén Andrada Sofia Andringa Carla Aramo Paulo Ricardo Araújo Ferreira Juan Carlos Arteaga Velázquez Hernán Gonzalo Asorey Pedro Assis Gualberto Avila Alina Mihaela Badescu Alena Bakalova Alexandru Balaceanu Felicia Barbato Ricardo Jorge Barreira Luz Karl-Heinz Becker Jose A Bellido Corinne Berat 1 Mario Edoardo Bertaina Xavier Bertou Peter Biermann Terasa Bister Jonathan Biteau 2 Jiri Blazek Carla Bleve 1 Martina Boháčová Denise Boncioli Carla Bonifazi Luan Bonneau Arbeletche Nataliia Borodai Ana Martina Botti Jeffrey Brack Thomas Bretz P Gabriel Brichetto Orchera Florian Lukas Briechle Peter Buchholz Antonio Bueno Stijn Buitink Mario Buscemi Karen S Caballero-Mora Lorenzo Caccianiga Fabrizia Canfora Ioana Caracas Juan Miguel Carceller Rossella Caruso Antonella Castellina Fernando Catalani Gabriella Cataldi Lorenzo Cazon Marcos Cerda Jose Augusto Chinellato Koun Choi Jiri Chudoba Ladislav Chytka Roger W Clay Agustín Cobos Cerutti Roberta Colalillo Alan Coleman Maria Rita Coluccia Ruben Conceição Antonio Condorelli Giovanni Consolati Fernando Contreras Fabio Convenga Diego Correia dos Santos Corbin Covault Sergio Dasso Kai Daumiller Bruce R Dawson Jarryd A Day Rogerio M de Almeida Joaquín de Jesús Sijbrand J de Jong Giuseppe de Mauro Joao de Mello Neto Ivan de Mitri Jaime de Oliveira Danelise de Oliveira Franco Francesco de Palma Vitor de Souza Emanuele de Vito Mariano del Río Olivier Deligny 2 Armando Di Matteo Carola Dobrigkeit Juan Carlos d'Olivo Rita dos Anjos Maria Teresa Dova Jan Ebr Ralph Engel Italo Epicoco Martin Erdmann Carlos O Escobar Alberto Etchegoyen Heino Falcke John Farmer Glennys Farrar Anderson Fauth Norberto Fazzini Fridtjof Feldbusch Francesco Fenu Brian Fick Juan Manuel Figueira Andrej Filipčič Tomas Fodran Martín Miguel Freire Toshihiro Fujii Alan Fuster Cristina Galea Claudio Galelli Beatriz García Adrianna Luz Garcia Vegas Hartmut Gemmeke Flavia Gesualdi Alexandru Gherghel-Lascu Piera Luisa Ghia 2 Ugo Giaccari Marco Giammarchi Maria Giller Jonas Glombitza Fabian Gobbi Fernando Gollan Geraldina Golup Mariano Gómez Berisso Primo F Gómez Vitale Juan Pablo Gongora Juan Manuel González Nicolás González Isabel Goos Dariusz Góra Alessio Gorgi Marvin Gottowik Trent D Grubb Fausto Guarino Germano Guedes Eleonora Guido Steffen Hahn Petr Hamal Matías Rolf Hampel Patricia Hansen Diego Harari Violet M Harvey Andreas Haungs Thomas Hebbeker Dieter Heck Gary C Hill Carlos Hojvat Jörg Hörandel Pavel Horvath Miroslav Hrabovský Tim Huege Johannes Hulsman Antonio Insolia Paula Gina Isar Petr Janecek Jeffrey A Johnsen Jakub Jurysek Alex Kääpä Karl-Heinz Kampert Bianca Keilhauer Julian Kemp Hans Klages Matthias Kleifges Jonny Kleinfeller Marcel Köpke Norbert Kunka Bruno L Lago Rodrigo Guedes Lang Niklas Langner Marcelo Augusto Leigui de Oliveira Vladimir Lenok Antoine Letessier-Selvon 3 Isabelle Lhenry-Yvon 2 Domenico Lo Presti Luis Lopes Rebeca López Lu Lu Quentin Luce Agustin Lucero Jon Paul Lundquist Allan Machado Payeras Giovanni Mancarella Dusan Mandat Bradley C Manning Julien Manshanden Paul Mantsch Sullivan Marafico 2 Analisa Mariazzi Ioana Mariş Giovanni Marsella Daniele Martello Humberto Martinez Oscar Martínez Bravo Massimo Mastrodicasa Hermann-Josef Mathes James Matthews Giorgio Matthiae Eric Mayotte Peter Mazur Gustavo Medina-Tanco Diego Melo Alexander Menshikov Kevin-Druis Merenda Stanislav Michal Maria Isabel Micheletti Lino Miramonti Silvia Mollerach François Montanet 1 Carlo Morello Miguel Mostafá Ana L Müller Marcio Aparecido Muller Katharine Mulrey Roberto Mussa Marco Muzio Wilson M Namasaka Alina Nasr-Esfahani Lukas Nellen Mihai Niculescu-Oglinzanu Marcus Niechciol Dave Nitz Dalibor Nosek Vladimir Novotny Libor Nožka Achille Nucita Luis Núñez Miroslav Palatka Juan Pallotta Philipp Papenbreer Gonzalo Parente Alejandra Parra Miroslav Pech Francisco Pedreira Jan Pękala Rodrigo Pelayo Jesús Peña-Rodriguez Edyvania Emily Pereira Martins Johnnier Perez Armand Carmina Pérez Bertolli Matías Perlin Lorenzo Perrone Sergio Petrera Tanguy Pierog Mário Pimenta Valerio Pirronello Manuel Platino Bjarni Pont Mart Pothast Paolo Privitera Michael Prouza Andrew Puyleart Sven Querchfeld Julian Rautenberg Diego Ravignani Maximilian Reininghaus Jan Ridky Felix Riehn Markus Risse Vincenzo Rizi Washington Rodrigues de Carvalho Jorge Rubén Rodriguez Rojo Matías J Roncoroni Markus Roth Esteban Roulet Adrian Rovero Philip Ruehl Steven J Saffi Alexandra Saftoiu Francesco Salamida Humberto Salazar Gaetano Salina Jose Sanabria Gomez Federico Sánchez Edivaldo Moura Santos Eva Santos Fred Sarazin Raul Sarmento Christian Sarmiento-Cano Ricardo Sato Pierpaolo Savina 2 Christoph M Schäfer Viviana Scherini Harald Schieler Martin Schimassek Michael Schimp Felix Schlüter David Schmidt Olaf Scholten Petr Schovánek Frank G Schröder Sonja Schröder Josina Schulte Sergio Sciutto Marina Scornavacche Alberto Segreto Srijan Sehgal Ronald C Shellard Guenter Sigl Gaia Silli Octavian Sima Radomir Šmída Paul Sommers Jorge F Soriano Julien Souchard 1 Ruben Squartini Maximilian Stadelmaier Denis Stanca Samo Stanič Jaroslaw Stasielak Patrick Stassi 1 Alexander Streich Mauricio Suárez-Durán Tristan Sudholz Tiina Suomijärvi 2 a Daniel Supanitsky Jan Šupík Zbigniew Szadkowski Alvaro Taboada Alex Tapia Carla Taricco Charles Timmermans Olena Tkachenko Petr Tobiska Carlos J Todero Peixoto Bernardo Tomé Andres Travaini Petr Travnicek Caterina Trimarelli Marta Trini Matias Tueros Ralf Ulrich Michael Unger Lukáš Vaclavek Martin Vacula Jose F Valdés Galicia Laura Valore Enrique Varela Varada Varma Kc Adriana Vásquez-Ramírez Darko Veberič Cynthia Ventura Indira D Vergara Quispe Valerio Verzi Jakub Vicha Jacco Vink Serguei Vorobiov Hernan Wahlberg Clara Watanabe Alan Watson Marc Weber Andreas Weindl Lawrence Wiencke Henryk Wilczyński Tobias Winchen Marcus Wirtz David Wittkowski Brian Wundheiler Alexey Yushkov Orazio Zapparrata Enrique Zas Danilo Zavrtanik Marko Zavrtanik Lukas Zehrer Arnulfo Zepeda
Abstract : To obtain direct measurements of the muon content of extensive air showers with energy above $10^{16.5}$ eV, the Pierre Auger Observatory is currently being equipped with an underground muon detector (UMD), consisting of 219 10 $\mathrm{m^2}$-modules, each segmented into 64 scintillators coupled to silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). Direct access to the shower muon content allows for the study of both of the composition of primary cosmic rays and of high-energy hadronic interactions in the forward direction. As the muon density can vary between tens of muons per m$^2$ close to the intersection of the shower axis with the ground to much less than one per m$^2$ when far away, the necessary broad dynamic range is achieved by the simultaneous implementation of two acquisition modes in the read-out electronics: the binary mode, tuned to count single muons, and the ADC mode, suited to measure a high number of them. In this work, we present the end-to-end calibration of the muon detector modules: first, the SiPMs are calibrated by means of the binary channel, and then, the ADC channel is calibrated using atmospheric muons, detected in parallel to the shower data acquisition. The laboratory and field measurements performed to develop the implementation of the full calibration chain of both binary and ADC channels are presented and discussed. The calibration procedure is reliable to work with the high amount of channels in the UMD, which will be operated continuously, in changing environmental conditions, for several years.
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Preprints, Working Papers, ...
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https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-03098838
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Submitted on : Tuesday, January 5, 2021 - 9:22:04 PM
Last modification on : Tuesday, January 12, 2021 - 9:16:04 PM

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Alexander Aab, Pedro Abreu, Marco Aglietta, Justin M Albury, Ingomar Allekotte, et al.. Calibration of the underground muon detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. 2021. ⟨hal-03098838⟩

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