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Monocomponent Photoinitiators based on Benzophenone-Carbazole Structure for LED Photoinitiating Systems and Application on 3D Printing

Abstract : In this article, different substituents (benzoyl, acetyl, styryl) are introduced onto the carbazole scaffold to obtain 8 novel carbazole derivatives. Interestingly, a benzoyl substituent, connected to a carbazole group, could form a benzophenone moiety, which composes a monocomponent Type II benzophenone-carbazole photoinitiator (PI). The synergetic effect of the benzophenone moiety and the amine in the carbazole moiety is expected to produce high performance photoinitiating systems (PISs) for the free radical photopolymerization (FRP). For different substituents, clear effects on the light absorption properties are demonstrated using UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy. Benzophenone-carbazole PIs can initiate the FRP of acrylates alone (monocomponent Type II photoinitiator behavior). In addition, fast polymerization rates and high function conversions of acrylate are observed when an amine and/or an iodonium salt are added in systems. Benzophenone-carbazole PIs have good efficiencies in cationic photopolymerization (CP) upon LED @ 365 nm irradiation in the presence of iodonium salt. In contrast, other PIs without synergetic effect demonstrate unsatisfied photopolymerization profiles in the same conditions. The best PIS identified for the free radical photopolymerization were used in three-dimensional (3D) printing. Steady state photolysis and fluorescence quenching experiments were carried out to investigate the reactivity and the photochemistry and photophysical properties of PIs. The free radicals, generated from the studied PISs, are detected by the electron spin resonance-spin trapping technique. The proposed chemical mechanisms are provided and the structure/reactivity/efficiency relationships are also discussed. All the results showed that the benzophenone-carbazole PIs have a good application potential, and this work provides a rational design route for PI molecules. Remarkably, BPC2-BPC4, C6, C8 were never synthetized before; therefore, 5 of the 8 compounds are completely new.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, July 1, 2020 - 10:19:18 PM
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Shaohui Liu, Hong Chen, Yijun Zhang, Ke Sun, Yangyang Xu, et al.. Monocomponent Photoinitiators based on Benzophenone-Carbazole Structure for LED Photoinitiating Systems and Application on 3D Printing. Polymers, MDPI, 2020, 12 (6), pp.1394. ⟨10.3390/polym12061394⟩. ⟨hal-02887016⟩

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