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Exploring mechanisms of resistance to respiratory inhibitors in field strains of Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of gray mold

Abstract : Respiratory inhibitors are among the fungicides most widely used for disease control on crops. Most are strobilurins and carboxamides, inhibiting the cytochrome b of mitochondrial complex III and the succinate dehydrogenase of mitochondrial complex II, respectively. A few years after the approval of these inhibitors for use on grapevines, field isolates of Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of gray mold, resistant to one or both of these classes of fungicide were recovered in France and Germany. However, little was known about the mechanisms underlying this resistance in field populations of this fungus. Such knowledge could facilitate resistance risk assessment. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of resistance occurring in B. cinerea populations. Highly specific resistance to strobilurins was correlated with a single mutation of the cytb target gene. Changes in its intronic structure may also have occurred due to an evolutionary process controlling selection for resistance. Specific resistance to carboxamides was identified for six phenotypes, with various patterns of resistance levels and cross-resistance. Several mutations specific to B. cinerea were identified within the sdhB and sdhD genes encoding the iron-sulfur protein and an anchor protein of the succinate dehydrogenase complex. Another as-yet-uncharacterized mechanism of resistance was also recorded. In addition to target site resistance mechanisms, multidrug resistance, linked to the overexpression of membrane transporters, was identified in strains with low to moderate resistance to several respiratory inhibitors. This diversity of resistance mechanisms makes resistance management difficult and must be taken into account when developing strategies for Botrytis control.
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Submitted on : Sunday, May 31, 2020 - 1:36:33 PM
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Pierre Leroux, Michel Gredt, Michaela Leroch, Anne Sophie Walker. Exploring mechanisms of resistance to respiratory inhibitors in field strains of Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of gray mold. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, American Society for Microbiology, 2010, 76 (19), pp.6615-6630. ⟨10.1128/AEM.00931-10⟩. ⟨hal-02668785⟩

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