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Correctness of Tendermint-Core Blockchains

Abstract : Tendermint-core blockchains (e.g. Cosmos) are considered today one of the most viable alternatives for the highly energy consuming proof-of-work blockchains such as Bitcoin and Ethereum. Their particularity is that they aim at offering strong consistency (no forks) in an open system combining two ingredients (i) a set of validators that generate blocks via a variant of Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerant (PBFT) consensus protocol and (ii) a selection strategy that dynamically selects nodes to be validators for the next block via a proof-of-stake mechanism. The exact assumptions on the system model under which Tendermint underlying algorithms are correct and the exact properties Tendermint verifies, however, have never been formally analyzed. The contribution of this paper is as follows. First, while formalizing Tendermint algorithms we precisely characterize the system model and the exact problem solved by Tendermint, then, we prove that in eventual synchronous systems a modified version of Tendermint solves (i) under additional assumptions, a variant of one-shot consensus for the validation of one single block and (ii) a variant of the repeated consensus problem for multiple blocks. These results hold even if the set of validators is hit by Byzantine failures, provided that for each one-shot consensus instance less than one third of the validators is Byzantine.
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Contributor : Maria Potop-Butucaru <>
Submitted on : Thursday, January 16, 2020 - 11:01:57 PM
Last modification on : Tuesday, March 23, 2021 - 9:28:02 AM



Yackolley Amoussou-Guenou, Antonella del Pozzo, Maria Potop-Butucaru, Sara Tucci-Pergiovanni. Correctness of Tendermint-Core Blockchains. 22nd International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2018), Dec 2018, Hong Kong, China. pp.16:1--16:16, ⟨10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2018.16⟩. ⟨hal-02443128⟩



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