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On the importance of substrate deformations for cell migration

Anais Gagnieu 1 Grégory Chagnon 1 Yves Chemisky 2, 3 Angélique Stephanou 4 Arnaud Chauvière 4 
1 TIMC-IMAG-BioMMat - Ingénierie Biomédicale et Mécanique des Matériaux
TIMC-IMAG - Techniques de l'Ingénierie Médicale et de la Complexité - Informatique, Mathématiques et Applications Grenoble - UMR 5525
4 TIMC-IMAG-DyCTiM - Dynamiques Cellulaire et Tissulaire - Interdisciplinarité, Modèles & Microscopies
TIMC-IMAG - Techniques de l'Ingénierie Médicale et de la Complexité - Informatique, Mathématiques et Applications Grenoble - UMR 5525
Abstract : Cell migration is essential for many biological processes such as tissue morphogenesis, wound healing or metastatic invasion in cancer. It is a complex and highly regulated phenomena closely guided and fine-tuned by both chemical and mechanical cues. Whereas chemoattraction has been extensively studied, the mechanical influence remains to be fully elucidated. Although cell sensitivity to the substrate rigidity is known under the term durotaxis [Marzban et al.2018] and substrate anisotropy is known to influence cellular organization [Checa et al. 2015] much less is known about cell sensitivity to environmental stresses and strains. This paper proposes to specifically focus on the cell sensitivity to substrate deformations during migration. Those are assumed to play a role in longrange cell-cell interactions [Han et al. 2018] by which a cell deforms the substrate [Tanimoto et al. 2014] and influences the orientation of migration of other cells in its neighbourhood. This form of mechanotaxis (to which we will refer as strain mechanosensing) could in particular explain how cells migrate towards each other to form vascular loops during angiogenesis whenchemotaxis is ruled out in a chemically saturated tissue.
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Anais Gagnieu, Grégory Chagnon, Yves Chemisky, Angélique Stephanou, Arnaud Chauvière. On the importance of substrate deformations for cell migration. Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering, 2020, 22 suppl 1, pp.S334-S335. ⟨10.1080/10255842.2020.1714933⟩. ⟨hal-02425956⟩

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