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Analyse de la préservation de l’ADN dans les ossements de rongeurs à Témara, Maroc, en remontant dans le temps

Abstract : We present our genetic study of ancient bones of macro and micro fauna preserved in the caves El Harhoura 2 and El Mnasra in Temara, Morocco, as well as a quantitative taphonomic study concerning the degradation of DNA in bones that had been digested by birds of prey, principal agent for modern and fossil rodent accumulations. This study yielded multiple results : (1) No DNA amplification product had been obtained from the aurochs and ass bones preserved in stratigraphic layers of the caves of Temara dated from ~44,000 years (ESR-U/Th dating) to ~74,000 years BP (OSL dating). We concluded that DNA was not preserved in these bones. (2) Since the taphonomic processes that occur in rodent bones, accumulated by birds of prey, are different from those of the big mammals, accumulated by humans or large carnivores, we have first explored and quantified the DNA preserved in bones and teeth of present-day pellets of birds of prey from Morocco. We determined that the majority of DNA molecules is degraded during this initial digestion and that no more than 10 to 0.1% of the initial DNA amount remains and that DNA molecules have an average size varying from 40 to 1,000 base pairs. The degree of degradation was independent of the species of bird of prey and of the skeletal parts of the prey. (3) We developed a new approach based on multiplex PCR and next generation sequencing and used it to analyze pools of bones that had been recovered aseptically from cores removed from different stratigraphic layers of the caves in Temara. This allowed us to obtain genetic results from bones in two different stratigraphic layers from El Harhoura 2 dated to up to 70,000 years BP. These results suggest genetic continuity of the mitochondrial lineages of meriones in the surroundings of Temara since the beginning of the Late Pleistocene. DNA preservation being better in microfaunal remains than in those of the macromammals we hypothesize that the process of initial digestion through birds of prey is favorable for long-term preservation of residual DNA.
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https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02402916
Contributor : Emmanuelle Stoetzel Connect in order to contact the contributor
Submitted on : Tuesday, December 10, 2019 - 4:24:40 PM
Last modification on : Monday, December 13, 2021 - 11:52:03 AM

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  • HAL Id : hal-02402916, version 1

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Eva-Maria Geigl, Silvia Guimaraes, Emmanuelle Stoetzel, Yolanda Fernandez-Jalvo, Roland Nespoulet, et al.. Analyse de la préservation de l’ADN dans les ossements de rongeurs à Témara, Maroc, en remontant dans le temps. Travaux de l’Institut Scientifique, Série Générale, 2015, 8, pp.43-51. ⟨hal-02402916⟩

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