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New Biosourced Flame Retardant Agents Based on Gallic and Ellagic Acids for Epoxy Resins

Abstract : The aim of this work was an investigation of the ability of gallic (GA) and ellagic (EA) acids, which are phenolic compounds encountered in various plants, to act as flame retardants (FRs) for epoxy resins. In order to improve their fireproofing properties, GA and EA were treated with boric acid (to obtain gallic acid derivatives (GAD) and ellagic acid derivatives (EAD)) to introduce borate ester moieties. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) highlighted the good charring ability of GA and EA, which was enhanced by boration. The grafting of borate groups was also shown to increase the thermal stability of GA and EA that goes up respectively from 269 to 528 °C and from 496 to 628 °C. The phenolic-based components were then incorporated into an epoxy resin formulated from diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) and isophorone diamine (IPDA) (72, 18, and 10 wt.% of DGEBA, IPDA, and GA or EA, respectively). According to differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the thermosets was decreased. Its values ranged from 137 up to 108 °C after adding the phenolic-based components. A cone calorimeter was used to evaluate the burning behavior of the formulated thermosets. A significant reduction of the peak of heat release rate (pHRR) for combustion was detected. Indeed, with 10 wt.% of GA and EA, pHRR was reduced by 12 and 44%, respectively, compared to that for neat epoxy resin. GAD and EAD also induced the decrease of pHRR values by 65 and 33%, respectively. In addition, a barrier effect was observed for the resin containing GAD. These results show the important influence of the biobased phenolic compounds and their boron derivatives on the fire behavior of a partially biobased epoxy resin
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Valeriia Karaseva, Anne Bergeret, Clément Lacoste, Hélène Fulcrand, Laurent Ferry. New Biosourced Flame Retardant Agents Based on Gallic and Ellagic Acids for Epoxy Resins. Molecules, MDPI, 2019, 24 (23), pp.4305. ⟨10.3390/molecules24234305⟩. ⟨hal-02381634⟩

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