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Regulation and tissue-specific expression of δ-aminolevulinic acid synthases in non-syndromic sideroblastic anemias and porphyrias

Abstract : Recently, new genes and molecular mechanisms have been identified in patients with porphyrias and sideroblastic anemias (SA). They all modulate either directly or indirectly the δ-aminolevulinic acid synthase (ALAS) activity. ALAS, is encoded by two genes: the erythroid-specific (ALAS2), and the ubiquitously expressed (ALAS1). In the liver, ALAS1 controls the rate-limiting step in the production of heme and hemoproteins that are rapidly turned over in response to metabolic needs. Several heme regulatory targets have been identified as regulators of ALAS1 activity: 1) transcriptional repression via a heme-responsive element, 2) post-transcriptional destabilization of ALAS1 mRNA, 3) post-translational inhibition via a heme regulatory motif, 4) direct inhibition of the activity of the enzyme and 5) breakdown of ALAS1 protein via heme-mediated induction of the protease Lon peptidase 1. In erythroid cells, ALAS2 is a gatekeeper of production of very large amounts of heme necessary for hemoglobin synthesis. The rate of ALAS2 synthesis is transiently increased during the period of active heme synthesis. Its gene expression is determined by trans-activation of nuclear factor GATA1, CACC box and NF-E2-binding sites in the promoter areas. ALAS2 mRNA translation is also regulated by the iron-responsive element (IRE)/iron regulatory proteins (IRP) binding system. In patients, ALAS enzyme activity is affected in most of the mutations causing non-syndromic SA and in several porphyrias. Decreased ALAS2 activity results either directly from loss-of-function ALAS2 mutations as seen in X-linked sideroblastic anemia (XLSA) or from defect in the availability of one of its two mitochondrial substrates: glycine in SLC25A38 mutations and succinyl CoA in GLRX5 mutations. Moreover, ALAS2 gain of function mutations is responsible for X-linked protoporphyria and increased ALAS1 activity lead to acute attacks of hepatic porphyrias. A missense dominant mutation in the Walker A motif of the ATPase binding site in the gene coding for the mitochondrial protein unfoldase CLPX also contributes to increasing ALAS and subsequently protoporphyrinemia. Altogether, these recent data on human ALAS have informed our understanding of porphyrias and sideroblastic anemias pathogeneses and may contribute to new therapeutic strategies.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, November 6, 2019 - 12:16:35 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, August 19, 2020 - 11:17:58 AM



Katell Peoc'H, Gaël Nicolas, Caroline Schmitt, Arienne Mirmiran, Raed Daher, et al.. Regulation and tissue-specific expression of δ-aminolevulinic acid synthases in non-syndromic sideroblastic anemias and porphyrias. Molecular Genetics and Metabolism, Elsevier, 2019, ⟨10.1016/j.ymgme.2019.01.015⟩. ⟨hal-02351175⟩



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