Hyperosmolar environment and intestinal epithelial cells: impact on mitochondrial oxygen consumption, proliferation, and barrier function in vitro

Abstract : The aim of the present study was to elucidate the in vitro short-term (2-h) and longer-term (24-h) effects of hyperosmolar media (500 and 680 mOsm/L) on intestinal epithelial cells using the human colonocyte Caco-2 cell line model. We found that a hyperosmolar environment slowed down cell proliferation compared to normal osmolarity (336 mOsm/L) without inducing cell detachment or necrosis. This was associated with a transient reduction of cell mitochondrial oxygen consumption, increase in proton leak, and decrease in intracellular ATP content. The barrier function of Caco-2 monolayers was also transiently affected since increased paracellular apical-to-basal permeability and modified electrolyte permeability were measured, allowing partial equilibration of the trans-epithelial osmotic difference. In addition, hyperosmotic stress induced secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8. By measuring expression of genes involved in energy metabolism, tight junction forming, electrolyte permeability and intracellular signaling, different response patterns to hyperosmotic stress occurred depending on its intensity and duration. These data highlight the potential impact of increased luminal osmolarity on the intestinal epithelium renewal and barrier function and point out some cellular adaptive capacities towards luminal hyperosmolar environment.
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Marta Culetto, Annaig Lan, Mireille Andriamihaja, Frédéric Bouillaud, Francois Blachier. Hyperosmolar environment and intestinal epithelial cells: impact on mitochondrial oxygen consumption, proliferation, and barrier function in vitro. Scientific Reports, Nature Publishing Group, 2019, 9 (1), ⟨10.1038/s41598-019-47851-9⟩. ⟨hal-02349944⟩

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