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Native elongating transcript sequencing reveals global anti-correlation between sense and antisense nascent transcription in fission yeast

Abstract : Antisense transcription can regulate sense gene expression. However, previous annotations of antisense transcription units have been based on detection of mature antisense long noncoding (aslnc)RNAs by RNA-seq and/or microarrays, only giving a partial view of the antisense transcription landscape and incomplete molecular bases for antisense-mediated regulation. Here, we used native elongating transcript sequencing to map genome-wide nascent antisense transcription in fission yeast. Strikingly, antisense transcription was detected for most protein-coding genes, correlating with low sense transcription, especially when overlapping the mRNA start site. RNA profiling revealed that the resulting aslncRNAs mainly correspond to cryptic Xrn1/Exo2-sensitive transcripts (XUTs). ChIP-seq analyses showed that antisense (as)XUT's expression is associated with specific histone modification patterns. Finally, we showed that asXUTs are controlled by the histone chaperone Spt6 and respond to meiosis induction, in both cases anti-correlating with levels of the paired-sense mRNAs, supporting physiological significance to antisense-mediated gene attenuation. Our work highlights that antisense transcription is much more extended than anticipated and might constitute an additional nonpromoter determinant of gene regulation complexity.
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Maxime Wery, Camille Gautier, Marc Descrimes, Mayuko Yoda, Hervé Vennin-Rendos, et al.. Native elongating transcript sequencing reveals global anti-correlation between sense and antisense nascent transcription in fission yeast. RNA, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 2018, 24 (2), pp.196-208. ⟨10.1261/rna.063446.117⟩. ⟨hal-02349817⟩

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