The Hot and Energetic Universe: A White Paper presenting the science theme motivating the Athena+ mission

Kirpal Nandra Didier Barret 1 Xavier Barcons Andy Fabian Jan-Willem den Herder Luigi Piro Mike Watson Christophe Adami 2 James Aird Jose Manuel Afonso Dave Alexander Costanza Argiroffi 3 Lorenzo Amati Monique Arnaud 4 Jean-Luc Atteia 5 Marc Audard 6 Carles Badenes 7 Jean Ballet 8 Lucia Ballo Aya Bamba Anil Bhardwaj Elia Stefano Battistelli Werner Becker Michaël de Becker Ehud Behar Stefano Bianchi Veronica Biffi Laura Bîrzan Fabrizio Bocchino Slavko Bogdanov Laurence Boirin Thomas Boller Stefano Borgani Katharina Borm Nicolas Bouche Herve Bourdin 9 Richard Bower 10 Valentina Braito Enzo Branchini 11 Graziella Branduardi-Raymont 12 Joel Bregman Laura Brenneman Murray Brightman Marcus Brüggen Johannes Buchner 13 Esra Bulbul Marcella Brusa Michal Bursa Alessandro Caccianiga Ed Cackett Sergio Campana Nico Cappelluti Massimo Cappi Francisco Carrera Maite Ceballos Finn Christensen 14 You-Hua Chu Eugene Churazov Nicolas Clerc 5 Stéphane Corbel 15 Amalia Corral Andrea Comastri Elisa Costantini 16 Judith Croston Mauro Dadina Antonino d'Ai Anne Decourchelle 8 Roberto Della Ceca Konrad Dennerl 17 Klaus Dolag Chris Done 18 Michal Dovciak Jeremy Drake Dominique Eckert 19 Alastair Edge Stefano Ettori Yuichiro Ezoe 20 Eric Feigelson 21 Rob Fender Chiara Feruglio 22 Alexis Finoguenov 23 Fabrizio Fiore Massimiliano Galeazzi 24 Sarah Gallagher Poshak Gandhi 18 Massimo Gaspari Fabio Gastaldello Antonis Georgakakis Ioannis Georgantopoulos Marat Gilfanov Myriam Gitti Randy Gladstone René Goosmann 25 Eric Gosset Nicolas Grosso 26 Manuel Guedel Martin Guerrero Frank Haberl Martin Hardcastle Sebastian Heinz Almudena Alonso Herrero Anthony Hervé Mats Holmström 27 Kazushi Iwasawa Peter Jonker Jelle Kaastra 16 Erin Kara Vladimir Karas 28 Joel Kastner Andrew King Daria Kosenko Dimitra Koutroumpa 29 Ralph Kraft Ingo Kreykenbohm Rosine Lallement 30 Giorgio Lanzuisi J. Lee Marianne Lemoine-Goumard 31 Andrew Lobban Giuseppe Lodato Lorenzo Lovisari Simone Lotti Ian Mccharthy Brian Mcnamara Antonio Maggio 32 Roberto Maiolino 33 Barbara de Marco Domitilla de Martino Silvia Mateos Giorgio Matt 11 Ben Maughan Pasquale Mazzotta 34 Mariano Mendez Andrea Merloni 35 Giuseppina Micela 32 Marco Miceli Robert Mignani Jon Miller Giovanni Miniutti Silvano Molendi Rodolfo Montez Alberto Moretti Christian Motch 26 Yaël Nazé 36 Jukka Nevalainen 37 Fabrizio Nicastro Paul Nulsen Takaya Ohashi Paul O'Brien Julian Osborne Lida Oskinova Florian Pacaud 38 Frederik Paerels Mat Page Iossif Papadakis Giovanni Pareschi Robert Petre Pierre-Olivier Petrucci 39 Enrico Piconcelli Ignazio Pillitteri 32 C. Pinto Jelle de Plaa Etienne Pointecouteau 5 Trevor Ponman Gabriele Ponti Delphine Porquet 26 Ken Pounds Gabriel Pratt 15 Peter Predehl 17 Daniel Proga Dimitrios Psaltis David Rafferty Miriam Ramos-Ceja Piero Ranalli Elena Rasia Arne Rau Gregor Rauw 36 Nanda Rea Andy Read James Reeves Thomas Reiprich Matthieu Renaud 8 Chris Reynolds Guido Risaliti Jerome Rodriguez 15 Paola Rodriguez Hidalgo Mauro Roncarelli David Rosario Mariachiara Rossetti Agata Rozanska Emmanouil Rovilos Ruben Salvaterra Mara Salvato 23 Tiziana Di Salvo Jeremy Sanders Jorge Sanz-Forcada 40 Kevin Schawinski Joop Schaye 41 Axel Schwope Salvatore Sciortino 32 Paola Severgnini Francesco Shankar 42 Debora Sijacki Stuart Sim Christian Schmid 43 Randall Smith Andrew Steiner Beate Stelzer 32 Gordon Stewart 44 Tod Strohmayer Lothar Strüder Ming Sun Yoh Takei V. Tatischeff Andreas Tiengo Francesco Tombesi Ginevra Trinchieri T. G. Tsuru Asif Ud-Doula 45 Eugenio Ursino 24 Lynne Valencic Eros Vanzella Simon Vaughan Cristian Vignali Jacco Vink 46 Fabio Vito Marta Volonteri 47 Daniel Wang Natalie Webb 5 Richard Willingale Joern Wilms Michael Wise 7 Diana Worrall Andrew Young Luca Zampieri Jean In'T Zand Silvia Zane Andreas Zezas Yuying Zhang 48 Irina Zhuravleva
29 HEPPI - LATMOS
LATMOS - Laboratoire Atmosphères, Milieux, Observations Spatiales
Abstract : This White Paper, submitted to the recent ESA call for science themes to define its future large missions, advocates the need for a transformational leap in our understanding of two key questions in astrophysics: 1) How does ordinary matter assemble into the large scale structures that we see today? 2) How do black holes grow and shape the Universe? Hot gas in clusters, groups and the intergalactic medium dominates the baryonic content of the local Universe. To understand the astrophysical processes responsible for the formation and assembly of these large structures, it is necessary to measure their physical properties and evolution. This requires spatially resolved X-ray spectroscopy with a factor 10 increase in both telescope throughput and spatial resolving power compared to currently planned facilities. Feedback from supermassive black holes is an essential ingredient in this process and in most galaxy evolution models, but it is not well understood. X-ray observations can uniquely reveal the mechanisms launching winds close to black holes and determine the coupling of the energy and matter flows on larger scales. Due to the effects of feedback, a complete understanding of galaxy evolution requires knowledge of the obscured growth of supermassive black holes through cosmic time, out to the redshifts where the first galaxies form. X-ray emission is the most reliable way to reveal accreting black holes, but deep survey speed must improve by a factor ~100 over current facilities to perform a full census into the early Universe. The Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics (Athena+) mission provides the necessary performance (e.g. angular resolution, spectral resolution, survey grasp) to address these questions and revolutionize our understanding of the Hot and Energetic Universe. These capabilities will also provide a powerful observatory to be used in all areas of astrophysics.
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Kirpal Nandra, Didier Barret, Xavier Barcons, Andy Fabian, Jan-Willem den Herder, et al.. The Hot and Energetic Universe: A White Paper presenting the science theme motivating the Athena+ mission. [Research Report] Max Plank Institute for Extraterrestial Life. 2013. ⟨hal-02325875⟩

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