Transfusion-Transmitted Hepatitis E Virus Infection in France

Abstract : There is growing concern regarding the risk of transfusion- transmitted (TT) hepatitis E. Since the first described case in 2006, several TT hepatitis E have been reported to the French hemovigilance network. We performed a retrospective analysis of all cases of TT hepatitis E reported between 2006 and 2016. Transfusion-transmitted hepatitis E with high imputability according to phylogenetic analysis occurred in 23 patients aged 8 to 88 years and involved mostly solid organ recipients (n = 9) or patients with malignant hematological diseases (n = 9, including 4 hematopoietic allograft recipients). Involved blood products were plasma (n = 7), among which 6 had undergone pathogen reduction with solvent/detergent (n = 4) or amotosalen + ultra-violet A (UVA) (n = 2 from 1 donation) treatments, red blood concentrates (n = 7), apheresis platelets concentrates (n = 3) and whole blood pooled platelets concentrates (n = 6), among which one had underwent amotosalen + UVA treatment. Median hepatitis E virus (HEV) RNA dose infused was 5.79 [4.36-10.10] log IU. HEV infection progressed to chronic hepatitis E in 14 (61%) immunocompromised patients, 2 of whom had advanced liver fibrosis at diagnosis. Chronic hepatitis E patients cleared HEV with ribavirin treatment (n = 10), after immunosuppressive drug reduction (n = 3), or spontaneously (n = 1). One additional organ transplant recipient with associated co-morbidities died with ongoing HEV infection and multiple organ failure. The other 8 (34.8%) patients with TT hepatitis E cleared HEV within 6 months with ribavirin treatment (n = 3), reduced immunosuppression (n = 1) or spontaneously (n = 4). Red cells, platelets, and plasma transfusions may be associated with TT hepatitis E that can evolve to chronic hepatitis E in immunocompromised patients. Hepatitis E virus has emerged in France as a clinically significant TT infection risk.
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Submitted on : Thursday, August 1, 2019 - 9:05:52 AM
Last modification on : Friday, August 2, 2019 - 2:20:56 AM

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Pierre Gallian, Elodie Pouchol, Rachid Djoudi, Sébastien Lhomme, Lina Mouna, et al.. Transfusion-Transmitted Hepatitis E Virus Infection in France. Transfusion Medicine Reviews, WB Saunders, 2019, ⟨10.1016/j.tmrv.2019.06.001⟩. ⟨hal-02227820⟩

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