Acides aminés à chaîne ramifiée et insulino-sensibilité : amis ou ennemis ?

Abstract : Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are essential amino acids, and play a key role in the regulation of energy homeostasis and nutritional metabolism. However, BCAA are not only substrates for protein synthesis, as they also serve as signalling molecules regulating the metabolism of glucose, lipids and proteins, via the PI3 K/AKT/mTOR signalling pathways. Although it has been shown that BCAA can improve metabolic health, an increase in their plasma levels has also been associated with a high risk of future type 2 diabetes (T2D). One of the proposed explanations for this phenotype concerns the overactivation of mTORC1 by BCAA, as it has been shown that could induce insulin resistance. Alternatively, a model of dysmetabolism also proposes that the accumulation of BCAA-derived metabolites would favour the mitochondrial dysfunction of β cells and adipocytes expressed during T2D. This review will therefore focus on recent insights associated with metabolic and regulatory pathways of BCAA, and the mechanisms underlying the relationship between BCAA and the associated pathological processes.
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Sergio Polakof. Acides aminés à chaîne ramifiée et insulino-sensibilité : amis ou ennemis ?. Cahiers de Nutrition et de Diététique, Elsevier Masson, 2019, 54 (3), pp.164-171. ⟨10.1016/j.cnd.2019.01.003⟩. ⟨hal-02167522⟩



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