GM-CSF targeted immunomodulation affects host response to M. tuberculosis infection

Abstract : Host directed immunomodulation represents potential new adjuvant therapies in infectious diseases such as tuberculosis. Major cytokines like TNFα exert a multifold role in host control of mycobacterial infections. GM-CSF and its receptor are over-expressed during acute M. tuberculosis infection and we asked how GM-CSF neutralization might affect host response, both in immunocompetent and in immunocompromised TNFα-deficient mice. GM-CSF neutralizing antibodies, at a dose effectively preventing acute lung inflammation, did not affect M. tuberculosis bacterial burden, but increased the number of granuloma in wild-type mice. We next assessed whether GM-CSF neutralization might affect the control of M. tuberculosis by isoniazid/rifampicin chemotherapy. GM-CSF neutralization compromised the bacterial control under sub-optimal isoniazid/rifampicin treatment in TNFα-deficient mice, leading to exacerbated lung inflammation with necrotic granulomatous structures and high numbers of intracellular M. tuberculosis bacilli. In vitro, GM-CSF neutralization promoted M2 anti-inflammatory phenotype in M. bovis BCG infected macrophages, with reduced mycobactericidal NO production and higher intracellular M. bovis BCG burden. Thus, GM-CSF pathway overexpression during acute M. tuberculosis infection contributes to an efficient M1 response, and interfering with GM-CSF pathway in the course of infection may impair the host inflammatory response against M. tuberculosis.
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Sulayman Benmerzoug, Fabio Vitarelli Marinho, Stéphanie Rose, Claire Mackowiak, David Gosset, et al.. GM-CSF targeted immunomodulation affects host response to M. tuberculosis infection. Scientific Reports, Nature Publishing Group, 2018, 8 (1), pp.8652. ⟨10.1038/s41598-018-26984-3⟩. ⟨hal-02118538⟩



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