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2015/16 I-MOVE/I-MOVE+ multicentre case-control study in Europe: Moderate vaccine effectiveness estimates against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and low estimates against lineage-mismatched influenza B among children

Esther Kissling 1 Marta Valenciano 1 Francisco Pozo 2 Ana-Maria Vilcu 3, 4 Annicka Reuss 5 Caterina Rizzo 6 Amparo Larrauri 7, 8 Judit Krisztina Horváth 9 Mia Brytting 10 Lisa Domegan 11 Monika Korczyńska 12 Adam Meijer 13 Ausenda Machado 14 Alina Ivanciuc 15 Vesna Višekruna Vučina 16 Sylvie van der Werf 17 Brunhilde Schweiger 18 Antonino Bella 6 Alin Gherasim 8 Annamária Ferenczi 9 Katherina Zakikhany 10 Joan O′donnell 11 Iwona Paradowska-Stankiewicz 12 Frederika Dijkstra 13 Raquel Guiomar 19 Mihaela Lazar 15 Sanja Kurečić Filipović 16 Kari Johansen 20 Alain Moren 1
Abstract : BACKGROUND: During the 2015/16 influenza season in Europe, the cocirculating influenza viruses were A(H1N1)pdm09 and B/Victoria, which was antigenically distinct from the B/Yamagata component in the trivalent influenza vaccine. METHODS: We used the test-negative design in a multicentre case-control study in twelve European countries to measure 2015/16 influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) against medically attended influenza-like illness (ILI) laboratory-confirmed as influenza. General practitioners swabbed a systematic sample of consulting ILI patients and a random sample of influenza-positive swabs was sequenced. We calculated adjusted VE against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H1N1)pdm09 genetic group 6B.1 and influenza B overall and by age group. RESULTS: We included 11 430 ILI patients, of which 2272 were influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and 2901 were influenza B cases. Overall VE against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 was 32.9% (95% CI: 15.5-46.7). Among those aged 0-14, 15-64 and ≥65 years, VE against A(H1N1)pdm09 was 31.9% (95% CI: -32.3 to 65.0), 41.4% (95% CI: 20.5-56.7) and 13.2% (95% CI: -38.0 to 45.3), respectively. Overall VE against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 genetic group 6B.1 was 32.8% (95% CI: -4.1 to 56.7). Among those aged 0-14, 15-64 and ≥65 years, VE against influenza B was -47.6% (95% CI: -124.9 to 3.1), 27.3% (95% CI: -4.6 to 49.4) and 9.3% (95% CI: -44.1 to 42.9), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccine effectiveness (VE) against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and its genetic group 6B.1 was moderate in children and adults, and low among individuals ≥65 years. Vaccine effectiveness (VE) against influenza B was low and heterogeneous among age groups. More information on effects of previous vaccination and previous infection is needed to understand the VE results against influenza B in the context of a mismatched vaccine.
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Esther Kissling, Marta Valenciano, Francisco Pozo, Ana-Maria Vilcu, Annicka Reuss, et al.. 2015/16 I-MOVE/I-MOVE+ multicentre case-control study in Europe: Moderate vaccine effectiveness estimates against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and low estimates against lineage-mismatched influenza B among children. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses, Wiley Open Access, 2018, 12 (4), pp.423-437. ⟨10.1111/irv.12520⟩. ⟨hal-02102565⟩

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