Limits of Life and the Habitability of Mars: The ESA Space Experiment BIOMEX on the ISS

Jean-Pierre de Vera 1 Mashal Alawi Theresa Backhaus Mickael Baque 2 Daniela Billi 3 Ute Böttger Thomas Berger Maria Bohmeier 4 Charles Cockell 5 René Demets 6 Rosa de la Torre Noetzel 7 Howell Edwards Andreas Elsaesser 8 Claudia Fagliarone Annelie Fiedler Bernard Foing 6 Frédéric Foucher 9 Jörg Fritz 10 Franziska Hanke Thomas Herzog Gerda Horneck 11 Heinz-Wilhelm Hübers 1 Björn Huwe 12 Jasmin Joshi 12 Natalia Kozyrovska 13 Martha Kruchten Peter Lasch Natuschka Lee Stefan Leuko Thomas Leya 14 Andreas Lorek Jesus Martinez-Frias 15 Joachim Meessen 16 Sophie Moritz Ralf Moeller 11 Karen Olsson-Francis 17 Silvano Onofri 18 Sieglinde Ott 16 Claudia Pacelli Olga Podolich Elke Rabbow 11 Günther Reitz 4 Petra Rettberg 11 Oleg Reva Lynn Rothschild 19 Leo Garcia Sancho Dirk Schulze-Makuch Laura Selbmann 18 Paloma Serrano 20 Ulrich Szewzyk 21 Cyprien Verseux Jennifer Wadsworth Dirk Wagner Frances Westall 9 David Wolter Laura Zucconi 18
Abstract : BIOMEX (BIOlogy and Mars EXperiment) is an ESA/Roscosmos space exposure experiment housed within the exposure facility EXPOSE-R2 outside the Zvezda module on the International Space Station (ISS). The design of the multiuser facility supports-among others-the BIOMEX investigations into the stability and level of degradation of space-exposed biosignatures such as pigments, secondary metabolites, and cell surfaces in contact with a terrestrial and Mars analog mineral environment. In parallel, analysis on the viability of the investigated organisms has provided relevant data for evaluation of the habitability of Mars, for the limits of life, and for the likelihood of an interplanetary transfer of life (theory of lithopanspermia). In this project, lichens, archaea, bacteria, cyanobacteria, snow/permafrost algae, meristematic black fungi, and bryophytes from alpine and polar habitats were embedded, grown, and cultured on a mixture of martian and lunar regolith analogs or other terrestrial minerals. The organisms and regolith analogs and terrestrial mineral mixtures were then exposed to space and to simulated Mars-like conditions by way of the EXPOSE-R2 facility. In this special issue, we present the first set of data obtained in reference to our investigation into the habitability of Mars and limits of life. This project was initiated and implemented by the BIOMEX group, an international and interdisciplinary consortium of 30 institutes in 12 countries on 3 continents. Preflight tests for sample selection, results from ground-based simulation experiments, and the space experiments themselves are presented and include a complete overview of the scientific processes required for this space experiment and postflight analysis. The presented BIOMEX concept could be scaled up to future exposure experiments on the Moon and will serve as a pretest in low Earth orbit.
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Jean-Pierre de Vera, Mashal Alawi, Theresa Backhaus, Mickael Baque, Daniela Billi, et al.. Limits of Life and the Habitability of Mars: The ESA Space Experiment BIOMEX on the ISS. Astrobiology, Mary Ann Liebert, 2019, 19 (2), pp.145-157. ⟨10.1089/ast.2018.1897⟩. ⟨hal-02086947⟩

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