Enseigner la cartographie en 2016 : Des pratiques et des objectifs diversifiés

Abstract : The teaching of cartography remains a particular lesson in the curriculum of geography training, both at university and in secondary education. Often linked to different geographical disciplines, this teaching is today confused with that of geomatics, which tends to encompass the various lessons of geographic information systems, reading and commentary of maps, spatial analysis, remote sensing and graphic semiology. We propose, in the framework of a detailed questionnaire addressed in 2015-2016, to the teachers of the field, to analyze in detail these evolutions of the teaching of cartography. What does it mean to teach cartography today? In which scientific paradigm do teachers position themselves? Is there one or more dichotomies? What are the trends that can emerge? The analysis of the answers given by a panel of about fifty teachers of various statuses (professors, teacher-researchers, lecturers, researchers and engineers) allows us to progress in this questioning. Whatever the level of education concerned, the teaching of cartography responds to an ever-strong and diversified demand and presents very different methods according to the contexts and tools taught. Traditional secondary and university education of the training course in geography, it remains quite specific because it requires a transmission of both basic knowledge of geography (general and thematic) and important technical and methodological know-how. Training in cartography, making the students autonomous in the creation of their maps, allowing them to formalize the geographical space and make visible what we do not perceive a priori, is not only synonymous with learning the principles of the graphic semiology transmitted by Jacques Bertin. There is also a growing array of graphical, digital and computer-based methodologies. Beyond the theory and the concepts that make it possible to express graphically the underlying spatial structures and structures of geographic analysis, the mastery of the tools to implement becomes indispensable: spreadsheets, statistical tools, automatic mapping software, GIS, CAD, remote sensing tools, the list extends and is renewed every day. "At the crossroads of science, technology, ethics, politics and even art" (Lambert, Zanin, 2016), cartographic discipline has become more complex. Between computer graphics, spatial analysis, geomatics, computer or artistic development, there are today several ways to approach cartographic education which tends to become more and more pointed in its relation with computer science. This trend necessarily questions the predicates of current teaching practices, in an academic context as in that of continuing education. An extensive questionnaire was sent in 2015-2016 to teachers in the field. The exploitation of the answers allows a detailed analysis of the evolutions of the teaching of cartography. It also guides us to a reflection on the meaning to be given to the teaching of cartography today and the questioning underlying the teaching of cartography: in which scientific paradigm do teachers position themselves? Is there one or more dichotomies? What are the trends that can emerge? The analysis is discussed here
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Christine Zanin, Laurent Jégou, Herve Parmentier. Enseigner la cartographie en 2016 : Des pratiques et des objectifs diversifiés. Cartes & géomatique, Comité français de cartographie, 2017, Cartographie et géomatique : un enseignement renouvelé, pp.23-34. ⟨http://www.lecfc.fr/new/articles/231-article-4.pdf⟩. ⟨hal-02086885⟩

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