Lipopeptides with improved properties: structure by NMR, purification by HPLC and structure-activity relationships of new isoleucyl-rich surfactins.

Abstract : The biosynthesis of bacterial isoleucyl-rich surfactins was controlled by supplementation of L-isoleucine to the culture medium. Two new variants, the [Ile4,7]- and [Ile2,4,7]surfactins, were thus produced by Bacillus subtilis and their separation was achieved by reverse-phase HPLC. Amino acids of the heptapeptide moiety were analysed by chemical methods, and the lipid moiety was identified by beta-hydroxy anteiso pentadecanoic acid by combined GC/MS. Sequences were established on the basis of two-dimensional NMR data. Because conformational parameters issuing from NMR spectra suggested that the cyclic backbone fold was globally conserved in the new variants, structure-activity relationships were discussed in details on the basis of the three-dimensional model of surfactin in solution. Indeed, both variants have increased surface properties compared with that of surfactin, and this improvement is assigned to an increase of the hydrophobicity of the apolar domain favouring micellization. Furthermore, the additional Leu-to-Ile substitution at position 2 in the [Ile2,4,7]surfactin leads to a substantial increase of its affinity for calcium, when compared with that of [Ile4,7]surfactin or surfactin. This effect is assigned, from the model, to an increase in the accessibility of the acidic side chains constituting the calcium binding site. Thus, the propensities of such active lipopeptides for both hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions were improved, further substantiating that they can be rationally designed.
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A Grangemard, F Peypoux, J. Wallach, B Das, H Labbé, et al.. Lipopeptides with improved properties: structure by NMR, purification by HPLC and structure-activity relationships of new isoleucyl-rich surfactins.. Journal of Peptide Science, Wiley, 1997, 3 (2), pp.145-54. ⟨10.1002/(SICI)1099-1387(199703)3:2%3C145::AID-PSC96%3E3.0.CO;2-Y⟩. ⟨hal-02082565⟩

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