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Genome-wide association study identifies 74 loci associated with educational attainment

David A. Bennett 1 Klaus Berger Lars Bertram Hans Bisgaard Dorret I. Boomsma Ingrid B. Borecki Ute Bültmann Christopher F. Chabris Francesco Cucca Daniele Cusi Ian J. Deary George V. Dedoussis Cornelia M. Duijn 2 Johan G. Eriksson Barbara Franke Lude Franke Paolo Gasparini Pablo V. Gejman Christian Gieger 3 Hans-Jörgen Grabe Jacob Gratten 4 Patrick J. F. Groenen 5 Vilmundur Gudnason Pim Harst Caroline Hayward David A. Hinds Wolfgang Hoffmann 6 Elina Hyppönen William G. Iacono Bo Jacobsson Marjo-Riitta Järvelin Karl-Heinz Jöckel Jaakko Kaprio 7 Sharon L. R. Kardia Terho Lehtimäki Steven F. Lehrer Patrik K. E. Magnusson Nicholas G. Martin Matt Mcgue Andres Metspalu Neil Pendleton Brenda W. J. H. Penninx Markus Perola 8 Nicola Pirastu Mario Pirastu 9 Ozren Polasek Danielle Posthuma Christine Power Michael A. Province Nilesh J. Samani David Schlessinger Reinhold Schmidt Thorkild I. A. Sørensen Tim D. Spector Kari Stefansson Unnur Thorsteinsdottir A. Roy Thurik 5, 10 Nicholas J. Timpson Henning Tiemeier Joyce Y. Tung André G. Uitterlinden 11 Veronique Vitart Peter Vollenweider David R. Weir James F. Wilson Alan F. Wright Dalton C. Conley Robert F. Krueger George Davey Smith 12 Albert Hofman David I. Laibson Sarah E. Medland 13 Michelle N. Meyer Jian Yang Magnus Johannesson Peter M. Visscher Tõnu Esko Philipp D. Koellinger David Cesarini Daniel J. Benjamin Aysu Okbay Jonathan P. Beauchamp Mark Alan Fontana James J. Lee Tune H. Pers Cornelius A. Rietveld Patrick Turley 14 Guo-Bo Chen Valur Emilsson S. Fleur W. Meddens Sven Oskarsson Joseph K. Pickrell Kevin Thom Pascal Timshel Ronald Vlaming Abdel Abdellaoui Tarunveer S. Ahluwalia Jonas Bacelis Clemens Baumbach Gyda Bjornsdottir Johannes H. Brandsma Maria Pina Concas Jaime Derringer Nicholas A. Furlotte Tessel E. Galesloot Giorgia Girotto Richa Gupta Leanne M. Hall Sarah E. Harris Edith Hofer 15 Momoko Horikoshi Jennifer E. Huffman Kadri Kaasik Ioanna P. Kalafati Robert Karlsson Augustine Kong Jari Lahti Sven J. van Der Lee Christiaan Deleeuw Penelope A. Lind Karl-Oskar Lindgren Tian Liu 16 Massimo Mangino 17 Jonathan Marten Evelin Mihailov Michael B. Miller Peter J. van Der Most Christopher Oldmeadow Antony Payton Natalia Pervjakova Wouter J. Peyrot Yong Qian Olli Raitakari 18, 19 Rico Rueedi Erika Salvi Börge Schmidt Katharina E. Schraut Jianxin Shi Albert V. Smith Raymond A. Poot Beate St Pourcain Alexander Teumer 17 Gudmar Thorleifsson Niek Verweij Dragana Vuckovic Juergen Wellmann Harm-Jan Westra Jingyun Yang Wei Zhao 20 Zhihong Zhu Behrooz Z. Alizadeh Najaf Amin Andrew Bakshi Sebastian E. Baumeister Ginevra Biino Klaus Bønnelykke Patricia A. Boyle Harry Campbell 21 Francesco P. Cappuccio Gail Davies Jan-Emmanuel de Neve Panos Deloukas Ilja Demuth 22 Jun Ding Peter Eibich Lewin Eisele Niina Eklund David M. Evans 23 Jessica D. Faul Mary F. Feitosa Andreas J. Forstner Ilaria Gandin Bjarni Gunnarsson Bjarni V. Halldórsson 24 Tamara B. Harris Andrew C. Heath Lynne J. Hocking Elizabeth G. Holliday Georg Homuth Michael A. Horan Jouke-Jan Hottenga 17 Philip L. Jager Peter K. Joshi Astanand Jugessur Marika A. Kaakinen Mika Kähönen Stavroula Kanoni Liisa Keltigangas-Järvinen Lambertus A. L. M. Kiemeney Ivana Kolcic Seppo Koskinen Aldi T. Kraja Martin Kroh Zoltan Kutalik Antti Latvala Lenore J. Launer 25 Maël P. Lebreton Douglas F. Levinson Paul Lichtenstein 26 Peter Lichtner David C. M. Liewald Lifelines Cohort Study Anu Loukola Pamela A. Madden Reedik Mägi Tomi Mäki-Opas Riccardo E. Marioni Pedro Marques-Vidal Gerardus A. Meddens George Mcmahon Christa Meisinger Thomas Meitinger Yusplitri Milaneschi Lili Milani Grant W. Montgomery 13 Ronny Myhre Christopher P. Nelson 27 Dale R. Nyholt William E. R. Ollier Aarno Palotie 28, 14 Lavinia Paternoster Nancy L. Pedersen 29 Katja E. Petrovic David J. Porteous Katri Räikkönen Susan M. Ring Antonietta Robino Olga Rostapshova Igor Rudan Aldo Rustichini Veikko Salomaa Alan R. Sanders Antti-Pekka Sarin Helena Schmidt 30 Rodney J. Scott Blair H. Smith Jennifer A. Smith Jan A. Staessen Elisabeth Steinhagen-Thiessen 22 Konstantin Strauch Antonio Terracciano 31 Martin D. Tobin Sheila Ulivi Simona Vaccargiu Lydia Quaye Frank J. A. Rooij Cristina Venturini Anna A. E. Vinkhuyzen Uwe Völker Henry Völzke Judith M. Vonk Diego Vozzi Johannes Waage 32 Erin B. Ware Gonneke Willemsen John R. Attia
Abstract : Educational attainment is strongly influenced by social and other environmental factors, but genetic factors are estimated to account for at least 20% of the variation across individuals1. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for educational attainment that extends our earlier discovery sample1,2 of 101,069 individuals to 293,723 individuals, and a replication study in an independent sample of 111,349 individuals from the UK Biobank. We identify 74 genome-wide significant loci associated with the number of years of schooling completed. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with educational attainment are disproportionately found in genomic regions regulating gene expression in the fetal brain. Candidate genes are preferentially expressed in neural tissue, especially during the prenatal period, and enriched for biological pathways involved in neural development. Our findings demonstrate that, even for a behavioural phenotype that is mostly environmentally determined, a well-powered GWAS identifies replicable associated genetic variants that suggest biologically relevant pathways. Because educational attainment is measured in large numbers of individuals, it will continue to be useful as a proxy phenotype in efforts to characterize the genetic influences of related phenotypes, including cognition and neuropsychiatric diseases.
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https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02017372
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Submitted on : Wednesday, February 13, 2019 - 10:21:36 AM
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David A. Bennett, Klaus Berger, Lars Bertram, Hans Bisgaard, Dorret I. Boomsma, et al.. Genome-wide association study identifies 74 loci associated with educational attainment. Nature, Nature Publishing Group, 2016, 533 (7604), pp.539--542. ⟨10.1038/nature17671⟩. ⟨hal-02017372⟩

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