Evolution of gene dosage on the Z-chromosome of schistosome parasites

Abstract : XY systems usually show chromosome-wide compensation of X-linked genes, while in many ZW systems, compensation is restricted to a minority of dosage sensitive genes. Why such differences arose is still unclear. Here, we combine comparative genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics to obtain a complete overview of the evolution of gene dosage on the Z-chromosome of Schistosoma parasites. We compare the Z-chromosome gene content of African (Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium) and Asian (S. japonicum) schistosomes, and describe lineage-specific evolutionary strata. We use these to assess gene expression evolution following sex-linkage. The resulting patterns suggest a reduction in expression of Z-linked genes in females, combined with up-regulation of the Z in both sexes, in line with the first step of Ohno's classic model of dosage compensation evolution. Quantitative proteomics suggest that post-transcriptional mechanisms do not play a major role in balancing the expression of Z-linked genes.
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Marion Picard, Celine Cosseau, Sabrina Ferré, Quack Thomas, C. Grevelding, et al.. Evolution of gene dosage on the Z-chromosome of schistosome parasites. eLife, eLife Sciences Publication, 2018, 7, pp.e35684. ⟨10.7554/eLife.35684⟩. ⟨hal-01851616⟩

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