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Improving Bag-of-Visual-Words Towards Effective Facial Expressive Image Classification

Abstract : Bag-of-Visual-Words (BoVW) approach has been widely used in the recent years for image classification purposes. However, the limitations regarding optimal feature selection, clustering technique, the lack of spatial organization of the data and the weighting of visual words are crucial. These factors affect the stability of the model and reduce performance. We propose to develop an algorithm based on BoVW for facial expression analysis which goes beyond those limitations. Thus the visual codebook is built by using k-Means++ method to avoid poor clustering. To exploit reliable low level features, we search for the best feature detector that avoids locating a large number of keypoints which do not contribute to the classification process. Then, we propose to compute the relative conjunction matrix in order to preserve the spatial order of the data by coding the relationships among visual words. In addition, a weighting scheme that reflects how important a visual word is with respect to a given image is introduced. We speed up the learning process by using histogram intersection kernel by Support Vector Machine to learn a discriminative classifier. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm is compared with standard bag of visual words method and with bag of visual words method with spatial pyramid. Extensive experiments on the CK+, the MMI and the JAFFE databases show good average recognition rates. Likewise, the ability to recognize spontaneous and non-basic expressive states is investigated using the DynEmo database.
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https://hal.univ-grenoble-alpes.fr/hal-01684620
Contributor : Dawood Alchanti Connect in order to contact the contributor
Submitted on : Monday, January 15, 2018 - 4:25:20 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, November 3, 2021 - 7:49:28 AM
Long-term archiving on: : Sunday, May 6, 2018 - 6:56:08 PM

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Dawood Al Chanti, Alice Caplier. Improving Bag-of-Visual-Words Towards Effective Facial Expressive Image Classification. VISIGRAPP 2018 - 13th International Joint Conference on Computer Vision, Imaging and Computer Graphics Theory and Applications, INSTICC, Jan 2018, Funchal,Madeira, Portugal. pp.145-152, ⟨10.5220/0006537601450152⟩. ⟨hal-01684620⟩

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