Low-dose alkylphenol exposure promotes mammary epithelium alterations and transgenerational developmental defects, but does not enhance tumorigenic behaviour of breast cancer cells

Clémence Chamard-Jovenin 1 Charlène Thiébaut 1 Amand Chesnel 1 Emmanuel Bresso 2 Chloé Morel 1 Malika Smaïl-Tabbone 3 Marie-Dominique Devignes 2 Taha Boukhobza 1 Hélène Dumond 1
2 CAPSID - Computational Algorithms for Protein Structures and Interactions
Inria Nancy - Grand Est, LORIA - AIS - Department of Complex Systems, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics
3 ORPAILLEUR - Knowledge representation, reasonning
Inria Nancy - Grand Est, LORIA - NLPKD - Department of Natural Language Processing & Knowledge Discovery
Abstract : Fetal and neonatal exposure to long chain alkylphenols has been suspected to promote breast developmental disorders and consequently to increase breast cancer risk. However, disease predisposition from developmental exposures remains unclear. In this work, human MCF-10A mammary epithelial cells were exposed in vitro to a low dose of a realistic [4-nonylphenol+4-tert-octylphenol] mixture. Transcriptome and cell phenotype analyses combined to functional and signaling network modeling indicated that long chain alkylphenols triggered enhanced proliferation, migration ability and apoptosis resistance and shed light on the underlying molecular mechanisms which involved the human estrogen receptor variant ERα36. A male mouse inherited transgenerational model of exposure to 3 environmentally relevant doses of the alkylphenol mix was set up in order to determine whether and how it would impact on mammary gland architecture. Mammary glands from F3 progeny obtained after intrabuccal chronic exposure of C57BL/6J P0 pregnant mice followed by F1 to F3 male inheritance displayed an altered histology which correlated with the phenotypes observed in vitro in human mammary epithelial cells. Since cellular phenotypes are similar in vivo and in vitro and involve the unique ERα36 human variant, such consequences of alkylphenol exposure could be extrapolated from mouse model to human. However, transient alkylphenol treatment combined to ERα36 overexpression in mammary epithelial cells were not sufficient to trigger tumorigenesis in xenografted Nude mice. Therefore, it remains to be determined if low dose alkylphenol transgenerational exposure and subsequent abnormal mammary gland development could account for an increased breast cancer susceptibility.
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Clémence Chamard-Jovenin, Charlène Thiébaut, Amand Chesnel, Emmanuel Bresso, Chloé Morel, et al.. Low-dose alkylphenol exposure promotes mammary epithelium alterations and transgenerational developmental defects, but does not enhance tumorigenic behaviour of breast cancer cells. Frontiers in Endocrinology, Frontiers, 2017, 8, pp.272. ⟨10.3389/fendo.2017.00272⟩. ⟨hal-01609240⟩

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