E. Arias, M. Heron, and B. Tejada-vera, United States life tables eliminating certain causes of death, Natl Vital Stat Rep, vol.61, issue.9, 1999.

S. Ayyadevara, A. R. Thaden, J. , S. Reis, and R. , Remarkable longevity and stress resistance of nematode PI3K-null mutants, Aging Cell, vol.148, issue.1, pp.13-22, 2008.
DOI : 10.1093/gerona/55.5.B215

D. Barardo, D. Thornton, H. Thoppil, M. Walsh, S. Sharifi et al., The DrugAge database of aging-related drugs, Aging Cell, vol.44, issue.3, pp.594-597, 2017.
DOI : 10.1093/nar/gkv1165

M. Ben-haim, Y. Kanfi, S. Mitchel, N. Maoz, K. Vaughan et al., Breaking the Ceiling of Human Maximal Lifespan, J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 2017.

G. Carbonnier, P. Chakraborty, D. Mulle, and E. , Asian and African Development Trajectories -Revisiting Facts and Figures. International Development Policy [Online], Working Papers, 2013.

G. Casquillas, Human longevity : The giants, LongLongLife.org, 2016.

E. Debonneuil, F. Planchet, and S. Loisel, Do actuaries believe in longevity deceleration?, Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, vol.in press, 2017.
DOI : 10.1016/j.insmatheco.2017.09.008

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01219270

E. Debonneuil, L. He, J. Mosher, and N. Weiss, Longevity Risk: Setting the scene, Risk books, 2011.

L. Dublin, Health and Wealth. A Survey of the Economics of World Health, p.361, 1928.

G. Fahy, Apparent Induction of Partial Thymic Regeneration in a Normal Human Subject: A Case Report, Journal of Anti-Aging Medicine, vol.6, issue.3, pp.219-227, 2003.
DOI : 10.1089/109454503322733063

D. Fagnan, A. Gromatzky, R. Stein, J. Fernandez, and A. Lo, Financing drug discovery for orphan diseases, Drug Discovery Today, vol.19, issue.5, pp.533-538, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.drudis.2013.11.009

URL : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drudis.2013.11.009

D. E. Fagnan, Financing translation: Analysis of the NCATS rare-diseases portfolio, Science Translational Medicine, vol.12, issue.276, pp.276-279, 2015.
DOI : 10.1257/aer.103.3.406

F. Jose-maria, S. Roger, M. , L. Andrew, and W. , Commercializing biomedical research through securitization techniques, Nature biotechnology, vol.30, pp.964-975, 2012.

Q. Guibert, F. Planchet, and M. Schwarzinger, Mesure de l'espérance de vie sans dépendance en France. <to be submitted>, 2017.

J. Hull, Funding long shots. Rotman School of Management Working Paper No, p.2773108, 2016.
DOI : 10.2139/ssrn.3058472

R. Kahn, A Simple Hedge for Longevity Risk using Research-Backed Obligations, JOIM Conference, 2015.

E. Karoui, N. Mrad, M. Hillairet, and C. , Affine long term yield curves: An application of the Ramsey rule with progressive utility, Journal of Financial Engineering, vol.43, issue.01, 2014.
DOI : 10.1257/jel.45.3.703

R. Macminn and N. Zhu, Hedging Longevity Risk in Life Settlements Using Biomedical Research-Backed Obligations, Journal of Risk and Insurance, vol.80, issue.S1, pp.439-458, 2017.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1539-6975.2013.12010.x

N. Marko, The cancer megafund: determinants of success, Nature Biotechnology, vol.31, issue.6, pp.492-496, 2013.
DOI : 10.1038/nbt.2603

G. Martin, K. Lamarco, E. Strauss, and K. Kelner, Research on Aging: The End of the Beginning, Science, vol.299, issue.5611, p.19, 2003.
DOI : 10.1126/science.299.5611.1339

A. Mendelsohn, J. Larrick, and J. Lei, Rejuvenation by Partial Reprogramming of the Epigenome, Rejuvenation Research, vol.20, issue.2, pp.146-150, 2017.
DOI : 10.1089/rej.2017.1958

P. Marcos, M. Muñoz-martin, C. Blanco-aparicio, J. Pastor, G. Gómez-lópez et al., Tissue damage and senescence provide critical signals for cellular reprogramming in vivo, Science, vol.354, issue.6315, 2016.

A. Lo, Can Financial Engineering Cure Cancer?, 2015.

A. Lo and S. Naraharisetti, New Financing Methods in the Biopharma Industry: A Case Study of Royalty Pharma, Inc., SSRN Electronic Journal, vol.12, pp.4-19, 2014.
DOI : 10.2139/ssrn.2330089

L. Phalippou, Investing in Private Equity Funds: A Survey. The Research Foundation of, 2010.
DOI : 10.2139/ssrn.980243

P. Planchet and P. Thérond, Allocation d'actifs selon le critère de maximisation des fonds propres économiques en assurance non-vie : présentation et mise en oeuvre dans la réglementation française et dans un référentiel de type Solvabilité 2, Bulletin Français d'Actuariat, vol.7, issue.13, 2007.

C. Pratt, 5 Private Longevity Stocks to Watch: From Calico to Genescient, Investing News, 2016.

D. Ravnic, A. Leberfinger, S. Koduru, M. Hospodiuk, K. Moncal et al., Transplantation of Bioprinted Tissues and Organs, Annals of Surgery, vol.266, issue.1, pp.48-58, 2017.
DOI : 10.1097/SLA.0000000000002141

P. Román and A. Ruiz-cantero, Polypathology, an emerging phenomenon and a challenge for healthcare systems, Revista Cl??nica Espa??ola (English Edition), vol.217, issue.4, pp.229-237, 2017.
DOI : 10.1016/j.rceng.2017.01.001

S. Jack, W. , B. Alex, B. Helen, and W. Brian, Diagnosing the decline in pharmaceutical R&D efficiency, Nature reviews Drug discovery, vol.11, pp.191-200, 2012.

R. Stein, A Simple Hedge for Longevity Risk and Reimbursement Risk Using Research-Backed Obligations, MIT Sloan Research Paper, pp.5165-5181, 2016.

J. Tenenbaum, The cancer megafund: a catalyst for disruptive innovation, Nature Biotechnology, vol.32, issue.6, pp.491-493, 2013.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1212118

U. Thiem, T. Hinrichs, C. Müller, S. Holt-noreiks, A. Nagl et al., Prerequisites for a new health care model for elderly people with multiple morbidities, Zeitschrift f??r Gerontologie und Geriatrie, vol.49, issue.S2, pp.101-113, 2011.
DOI : 10.1007/s00103-006-1267-y

M. Transparency and . Research, Anti-aging Market (Anti-wrinkle products, Hair Color, Hair restoration treatment, Breast augmentation and Radio frequency devices) - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast, pp.2013-2019, 2014.

J. Vallin and F. Meslé, Espérance de vie: peut-on gagner trois mois par an indéfiniment?, p.473, 2010.

J. Vaupel, Biodemography of human ageing, Nature, vol.39, issue.7288, pp.536-578, 2010.
DOI : 10.2307/4444260

X. Yang, E. Debonneuil, A. Zhavoronkov, and B. Mishra, Cancer megafunds with <i>in silico</i> and <i>in vitro</i> validation: accelerating cancer drug discovery <i>via</i> financial engineering without financial crisis, Oncotarget, vol.7, issue.36, 2016.
DOI : 10.18632/oncotarget.9808

A. Zhavoronkov, E. Debonneuil, N. Mirza, and I. Artyuhov, Evaluating the impact of recent advances in biomedical sciences and the possible mortality decreases on the future of health care and Social Security in the United States, Pensions: An International Journal, vol.460, issue.7253, pp.241-251, 2012.
DOI : 10.1038/nature08980