Policy packages for modal shift and CO2 reduction in Lille, France

Abstract : This paper proposes different policy scenarios to cut CO2 emissions caused by the urban mobility of passengers. More precisely, we compare the effects of the ‘direct tool’ of carbon tax, to a combination of ‘indirect tools’ – not originally aimed at reducing CO2 (i.e. congestion charging, parking charges and a reduction in public transport travel time) in terms of CO2 impacts through a change in the modal split. In our model, modal choices depend on individual characteristics, trip features (including the effects of policy tools), and land use at origin and destination zones. Personal “CO2 emissions budgets” resulting from the trips observed in the metropolitan area of Lille (France) in 2006 are calculated and compared to the situation related to the different policy scenarios. We find that an increase of 50% in parking charges combined with a cordon toll of €1.20 and a 10% travel time decrease in public transport services (made after recycling toll-revenues) is the winning scenario. The combined effects of all the policy scenarios are superior to their separate effects.
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Hakim Hammadou, Claire Papaix. Policy packages for modal shift and CO2 reduction in Lille, France. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, Elsevier, 2015, 38, pp.105--116. 〈10.1016/j.trd.2015.04.008〉. 〈hal-01533557〉

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