Les leptospiroses dans les îles françaises de l’Océan Indien

Abstract : Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of medical concern worldwide, and particularly in several islands of the Indian Ocean. Recent investigations have revealed distinct transmission cycles in the different islands of this region, notably in Madagascar and on the two French islands of Mayotte and La Reunion. From an evolutionary perspective, these investigations have shown the presence of distinct bacterial assemblages in the different insular ecosystems. Indeed, Madagascar hosts a unique diversity of pathogenic Leptospira in its wild fauna, including one endemic species introduced to the neighbouring Mayotte Island, where it is responsible for an important part of acute infections in humans. By contrast, on Reunion Island, human leptospirosis results from a much narrower diversity of cosmopolitan Leptospira that are likely of recent introduction. From a prevention standpoint, data produced on the French islands of Indian Ocean reveal that rats are not the only animals at play in human transmission, but rather support an important role of other introduced animal taxa, among which dogs deserve special attention. Altogether, these studies, based on a One Health conceptual Framework show that the investigation of the environmental approach of a given zoonosis highlights the transmission cycles at work in a given ecosystem, and hence helps guiding the control measures to be implemented at each specific environment.
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Pablo Tortosa, Koussay Dellagi, Patrick Mavingui. Les leptospiroses dans les îles françaises de l’Océan Indien. Bulletin Epidémiologique Hebdomadaire - BEH, Saint-Maurice (Val de Marne) : Institut de veille sanitaire, 2017. ⟨hal-01508690⟩

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