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XPS Investigation of Surface Reactivity of Electrode Materials: Effect of the Transition Metal

Abstract : The role of the transition metal nature and Al2O3 coating on the surface reactivity of LiCoO2 and LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC) materials were studied by coupling chemisorption of gaseous probes molecules and X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopy. The XPS analyses have put in evidence the low reactivity of the LiMO2 materials toward basic gaseous probe (NH3). The reactivity toward SO2 gaseous probe is much larger (roughly more than 10 times) and strongly influenced by the nature of metal. Only one adsorption mode (redox process producing adsorbed sulfate species) was observed at the LiCoO2 surface, while NMC materials exhibit sulfate and sulfite species at the surface. On the basis of XPS analysis of bare materials and previous theoretical work, we propose that the acidbase adsorption mode involving the Ni2+ cation is responsible for the sulfite species on the NMC surface. After Al2O3 coating, the surface reactivity was clearly decreasing for both LiCoO2 and NMC materials. In addition, for LiCoO2, the coating modifies the surface reactivity with the identification of both sulfate and sulfite species. This result is in line with a change in the adsorption mode from redox toward acidbase after Al/Co substitution. In the case of NMC materials, the coating induced a decrease of the sulfite species content at the surface. This phenomenon can be related to the cation mixing effect in the NMC.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, March 14, 2017 - 2:09:25 PM
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N. Andreu, D. Flahaut, R. Dedryvere, Marie Minvielle, Hervé Martinez, et al.. XPS Investigation of Surface Reactivity of Electrode Materials: Effect of the Transition Metal. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, Washington, D.C. : American Chemical Society, 2015, 7 (12), pp.6629-6636. ⟨10.1021/am5089764⟩. ⟨hal-01489307⟩



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