Cibles et immunothérapies innovantes dans le traitement de l’allergie alimentaire

Abstract : Allergic diseases are a major public health problem today due to the constant increase in their prevalence in industrialized countries. The absence of effective curative treatment coupled with the increased risk of anaphylactic shock following renewed allergen exposure could result in a resurgence of hospitalizations and medical interventions, especially for food allergies. The development of new therapies to prevent and treat food allergies thus appears to be a pressing need. The extensive and growing knowledge of the pathophysiological mechanisms of allergic reactions have opened up new therapeutic perspectives. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a perfect example. A quantitative and/or qualitative deficit of these cells was observed in allergic patients, which may partly explain their allergen hypersensitivity. Thus, the strategy to recruit and activate Tregs in vivo offers a new therapeutic path. In this context, interleukin 2 (IL-2) is a promising candidate having immunosuppressive properties when used in low-doses. The clinical results obtained recently in the context of autoimmune diseases and the associated safety profile suggests the need for its evaluation in humans for other immune dysfunctions, including food allergy. Through a literature review detailing the pathophysiological bases of food allergy, as well as currently available and future therapies, we show therapeutic value of the use of low-dose IL-2 with particular emphasis on proof of concepts and the different clinical trials to date.
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B. Bonnet, P.A. Vinot, B. Bellier. Cibles et immunothérapies innovantes dans le traitement de l’allergie alimentaire. Revue francaise d'allergologie, Elsevier, 2017, ⟨10.1016/j.reval.2016.11.003⟩. ⟨hal-01483716⟩

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