Double-walled carbon nanotubes: Quantitative purification assessment, balance between purification and degradation and solution filling as an evidence of opening

Abstract : We compared the effect of different oxidizing agents on purification, functionalization and opening of double-walled carbon nanotubes. The oxidative treatments were realized in nitric acid solutions at different concentrations (3 M or 15 M), in a mixture of two oxoacids (conc. HNO3/conc. H2SO4) or in sulphuric acid solutions of KMnO4 or K2Cr2O7. Most of these treatments were very efficient for purification (removal of residual catalytic metal nanoparticles and/or of disorganized carbon) but also caused secondary reactions such as shortening of the nanotubes, creation of functionalized amorphous carbon deposits and covalent functionalization of the outer wall. Secondary treatments were undertaken in order to remove functionalized carbon deposit by washing with sodium hydroxide solutions or by heat treatment in air. A partial filling in solution was obtained with uranyl nitrate, in order to evidence the opening of carbon nanotubes. Effects of purification and filling treatments were characterized both qualitatively by TEM and HRTEM, AFM and Raman spectroscopy, and quantitatively by elemental chemical analysis and chemical titrations.
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Tifania Bortolamiol, Petar Lukanov, Anne-Marie Galibert, Brigitte Soula, Pierre Lonchambon, et al.. Double-walled carbon nanotubes: Quantitative purification assessment, balance between purification and degradation and solution filling as an evidence of opening. Carbon, Elsevier, 2014, vol. 78, pp. 79-90. ⟨10.1016/j.carbon.2014.06.051⟩. ⟨hal-01445549⟩

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