Jack-of-all-trades effects drive biodiversity–ecosystem multifunctionality relationships in European forests

Fons Van Der Plas 1, 2 Peter Manning 1, 2 Eric Allan 1 Michael Scherer-Lorenzen 3 Kris Verheyen 4 Christian Wirth 5, 6 Miguel Angel Zavala 7 Andy Hector 8 Evy Ampoorter 4 Landen Baeten 4 Luc Barbaro 9 Jürgen Bauhus 3 Raquel Benavides 3 Adam Benneter 3 Felix Berthold 10 Damien Bonal 11 Olivier Bouriaud 12 Helge Bruelheide 6, 10 Filippo Bussotti 13 Monique Carnol 14 Bastien Castagneyrol 9 Yohan Charbonnier 9 David Coomes 15 Andrea Coppi 13 Cristina C. Bastias 16 Seid Muhie Dawud 17 Hans De Wandeler 18 Timo Domisch 19 Leena Finér 19 Arthur Gessler 20 André Granier 11 Charlotte Grossiord 21 Virginie Guyot 9, 22 Stephan Hättenschwiler 23 Hervé Jactel 9 Bogdan Jaroszewicz 24 François-Xavier Joly 23 Tommaso Jucker 15 Julia Koricheva 25 Harriet Milligan 25 Sandra Müller 3 Bart Muys 18 Diem Nguyen 26 Martina Pollastrini 13 Karsten Raulund-Rasmussen 17 Federico Selvi 13 Jan Stenlid 26 Fernando Valladares 16, 27 Lars Vesterdal 17 Dawid Zielínski 24 Markus Fischer 1
Abstract : There is considerable evidence that biodiversity promotes multiple ecosystem functions (multifunctionality), thus ensuring the delivery of ecosystem services important for human well-being. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship are poorly understood, especially in natural ecosystems. We develop a novel approach to partition biodiversity effects on multifunctionality into three mechanisms and apply this to European forest data. We show that throughout Europe, tree diversity is positively related with multifunctionality when moderate levels of functioning are required, but negatively when very high function levels are desired. For two well-known mechanisms, ‘complementarity’ and ‘selection’, we detect only minor effects on multifunctionality. Instead a third, so far overlooked mechanism, the ‘jack-of-all-trades’ effect, caused by the averaging of individual species effects on function, drives observed patterns. Simulations demonstrate that jack-of-all-trades effects occur whenever species effects on different functions are not perfectly correlated, meaning they may contribute to diversity–multifunctionality relationships in many of the world’s ecosystems.
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Nature Communications, Nature Publishing Group, 2016, Vol. 7, pp. 1-11. 〈10.1038/ncomms11109〉
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Fons Van Der Plas, Peter Manning, Eric Allan, Michael Scherer-Lorenzen, Kris Verheyen, et al.. Jack-of-all-trades effects drive biodiversity–ecosystem multifunctionality relationships in European forests. Nature Communications, Nature Publishing Group, 2016, Vol. 7, pp. 1-11. 〈10.1038/ncomms11109〉. 〈hal-01441562〉

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