T. Agusa, T. Matsumoto, T. Ikemoto, Y. Anan, R. Kubota et al., BODY DISTRIBUTION OF TRACE ELEMENTS IN BLACK-TAILED GULLS FROM RISHIRI ISLAND, JAPAN: AGE-DEPENDENT ACCUMULATION AND TRANSFER TO FEATHERS AND EGGS, Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol.24, issue.9, pp.2107-2120, 2005.
DOI : 10.1897/04-617R.1

O. R. Anderson, R. A. Phillips, R. F. Shore, R. A. Mcgill, R. A. Mcdonald et al., Element patterns in albatrosses and petrels: Influence of trophic position, foraging range, and prey type, Environmental Pollution, vol.158, issue.1, pp.98-107, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.envpol.2009.07.040

L. B. Astheimer and C. Grau, The Timing and Energetic Consequences of Egg Formation in the Adelie Penguin, The Condor, vol.87, issue.2, pp.256-268, 1985.
DOI : 10.2307/1366891

L. Atwell, K. Hobson, and H. Welch, Biomagnification and bioaccumulation of mercury in an arctic marine food web: insights from stable nitrogen isotope analysis, Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, vol.55, issue.5, pp.1114-1121, 1998.
DOI : 10.1139/f98-001

A. Aubail, J. Teilmann, R. Dietz, F. Rigét, T. Harkonen et al., Investigation of mercury concentrations in fur of phocid seals using stable isotopes as tracers of trophic levels and geographical regions, Polar Biology, vol.27, issue.9, pp.1411-1420, 2011.
DOI : 10.1007/s00300-011-0996-z

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00611657

R. Bargagli, F. Monaci, J. C. Sanchez-hernandez, and D. Cateni, Biomagnification of mercury in an Antarctic marine coastal food web, Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol.169, pp.65-76, 1998.
DOI : 10.3354/meps169065

R. Bargagli, J. Sanchez-hernandez, L. Martella, and F. Monaci, Mercury, cadmium and lead accumulation in Antarctic mosses growing along nutrient and moisture gradients, Polar Biology, vol.19, issue.5, pp.316-322, 1998.
DOI : 10.1007/s003000050252

R. Bargagli, F. Monaci, and C. Bucci, Environmental biogeochemistry of mercury in Antarctic ecosystems, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.39, issue.1, pp.352-360, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.soilbio.2006.08.005

S. Bearhop, R. A. Phillips, D. R. Thompson, S. Waldron, and R. W. Furness, :the influence of colony, diet and trophic status inferred from stable isotope signatures, Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol.195, pp.261-268, 2000.
DOI : 10.3354/meps195261

S. Bearhop, S. Waldron, D. Thompson, and R. Furness, Bioamplification of Mercury in Great Skua Catharacta skua Chicks: the Influence of Trophic Status as Determined by Stable Isotope Signatures of Blood and Feathers, Marine Pollution Bulletin, vol.40, issue.2, pp.181-185, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0025-326X(99)00205-2

P. Blévin, A. Carravieri, A. Jaeger, O. Chastel, P. Bustamante et al., Wide Range of Mercury Contamination in Chicks of Southern Ocean Seabirds, PLoS ONE, vol.14, issue.1, p.54508, 2013.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0054508.t004

P. Bocher, F. Caurant, P. Miramand, Y. Cherel, and P. Bustamante, Influence of the diet on the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in zooplankton-eating petrels at Kerguelen archipelago, Southern Indian Ocean, Polar Biology, vol.26, issue.12, pp.759-767, 2003.
DOI : 10.1007/s00300-003-0552-6

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00189325

K. Borgå, L. Campbell, G. W. Gabrielsen, R. J. Norstrom, D. C. Muir et al., REGIONAL AND SPECIES SPECIFIC BIOACCUMULATION OF MAJOR AND TRACE ELEMENTS IN ARCTIC SEABIRDS, Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol.25, issue.11, pp.2927-2936, 2006.
DOI : 10.1897/05-574R1.1

R. L. Brasso, M. J. Polito, H. J. Lynch, R. Naveen, and S. D. Emslie, Penguin eggshell membranes reflect homogeneity of mercury in the marine food web surrounding the Antarctic Peninsula, Science of The Total Environment, vol.439, pp.165-171, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.09.028

M. S. Burchett, Food, feeding and behaviour of Notothenia rossii marmorata nearshore at South Georgia, Br. Antarct. Surv. Bull, vol.61, pp.45-51, 1983.

K. P. Burnham and D. R. Anderson, Model Selection and Multimodel Inference, 2002.
DOI : 10.1007/b97636

P. Bustamante, P. Bocher, Y. Cherel, P. Miramand, and F. Caurant, Distribution of trace elements in the tissues of benthic and pelagic fish from the Kerguelen Islands, Science of The Total Environment, vol.313, issue.1-3, pp.25-39, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0048-9697(03)00265-1

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00186633

P. Bustamante, A. Carravieri, A. Goutte, C. Barbraud, K. Delord et al., High feather mercury concentrations in the wandering albatross are related to sex, breeding status and trophic ecology with no demographic consequences, Environmental Research, vol.144, pp.1-10, 2016.
DOI : 10.1016/j.envres.2015.10.024

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01223563

L. M. Campbell, R. J. Norstrom, K. Hobson, D. C. Muir, S. Backus et al., Mercury and other trace elements in a pelagic Arctic marine food web, Sci. Total Environ, pp.351-352, 2005.

A. Carravieri, P. Bustamante, C. Churlaud, and Y. Cherel, Penguins as bioindicators of mercury contamination in the Southern Ocean: Birds from the Kerguelen Islands as a case study, Science of The Total Environment, vol.454, issue.455, pp.454-455, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.02.060

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00807268

A. Carravieri, P. Bustamante, S. Tartu, A. Meillère, P. Labadie et al., Wandering Albatrosses Document Latitudinal Variations in the Transfer of Persistent Organic Pollutants and Mercury to Southern Ocean Predators, Environmental Science & Technology, vol.48, issue.24, pp.14746-14755, 2014.
DOI : 10.1021/es504601m

A. Carravieri, Y. Cherel, P. Blévin, M. Brault-favrou, O. Chastel et al., Mercury exposure in a large subantarctic avian community, Environmental Pollution, vol.190, pp.51-57, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.envpol.2014.03.017

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00978958

R. Casaux, G. Soave, and N. Coria, Lanternfish (Myctophidae) in the diet of the Cape petrel Daption capense at the South Shetland and South Orkney Islands, Antarctica, Polar Biology, vol.20, issue.5, pp.364-366, 1998.
DOI : 10.1007/s003000050315

R. Casaux, A. Baroni, A. Ramón, M. Favero, and P. Silva, Aspects of the foraging behaviour of the Antarctic Tern Sterna vittata gaini at Harmony Point, South Shetland Islands, Polar Biology, vol.26, issue.3???4, pp.327-331, 2008.
DOI : 10.1007/s00300-007-0362-3

Y. Cherel, P. Bocher, C. Trouvé, and H. Weimerskirch, Diet and feeding ecology of blue petrels Halobaena caerulea at Iles Kerguelen, Southern Indian Ocean, Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol.228, pp.283-299, 2002.
DOI : 10.3354/meps228283

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00191974

Y. Cherel, K. A. Hobson, F. Bailleul, and R. Groscolas, NUTRITION, PHYSIOLOGY, AND STABLE ISOTOPES: NEW INFORMATION FROM FASTING AND MOLTING PENGUINS, Ecology, vol.86, issue.11, pp.2881-2888, 2005.
DOI : 10.1007/s00442-003-1270-z

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00187689

Y. Cherel, R. A. Phillips, K. A. Hobson, and R. Mcgill, Stable isotope evidence of diverse species-specific and individual wintering strategies in seabirds, Biology Letters, vol.74, issue.1400, pp.301-303, 2006.
DOI : 10.1098/rspb.1998.0390

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00184875

Y. Cherel, S. Ducatez, C. Fontaine, P. Richard, and C. Guinet, Stable isotopes reveal the trophic position and mesopelagic fish diet of female southern elephant seals breeding on the Kerguelen Islands, Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol.370, pp.239-247, 2008.
DOI : 10.3354/meps07673

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00338488

T. Chouvelon, J. Spitz, F. Caurant, P. Mèndez-fernandez, J. Autier et al., Enhanced bioaccumulation of mercury in deep-sea fauna from the Bay of Biscay (north-east Atlantic) in relation to trophic positions identified by analysis of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes, Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, vol.65, pp.113-124, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.dsr.2012.02.010

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00694521

T. Chouvelon, J. Spitz, F. Caurant, P. Mèndez-fernandez, A. Chappuis et al., Revisiting the use of ??15N in meso-scale studies of marine food webs by considering spatio-temporal variations in stable isotopic signatures ??? The case of an open ecosystem: The Bay of Biscay (North-East Atlantic), Progress in Oceanography, vol.101, issue.1, pp.92-105, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.pocean.2012.01.004

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00700409

E. S. Choy, M. Gauthier, M. L. Mallory, J. P. Smol, M. S. Douglas et al., An isotopic investigation of mercury accumulation in terrestrial food webs adjacent to an Arctic seabird colony, Science of The Total Environment, vol.408, issue.8, pp.1858-1867, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.01.014

C. V. Cipro, S. Taniguchi, and R. C. Montone, Occurrence of organochlorine compounds in Euphausia superba and unhatched eggs of Pygoscelis genus penguins from Admiralty Bay (King George Island, Antarctica) and estimation of biomagnification factors, Chemosphere, vol.78, issue.6, pp.767-771, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2009.10.006

C. V. Cipro, G. T. Yogui, P. Bustamante, S. Taniguchi, J. L. Sericano et al., Organic pollutants and their correlation with stable isotopes in vegetation from King George Island, Antarctica, Chemosphere, vol.85, issue.3, pp.393-398, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.07.047

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00640275

C. V. Cipro, P. Bustamante, S. Taniguchi, and R. C. Montone, Persistent organic pollutants and stable isotopes in pinnipeds from King George Island, Antarctica, Marine Pollution Bulletin, vol.64, issue.12, pp.2650-2655, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2012.10.012

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00819442

C. V. Cipro, F. I. Colabuono, S. Taniguchi, and R. C. Montone, Persistent organic pollutants in bird, fish and invertebrate samples from King George Island, Antarctica, Antarctic Science, vol.15, issue.04, pp.545-552, 2013.
DOI : 10.1007/s001140100216

C. V. Cipro, Y. Cherel, F. Caurant, P. Miramand, P. Méndez-fernandez et al., Trace elements in tissues of white-chinned petrels (Procellaria aequinoctialis) from Kerguelen waters, Southern Indian Ocean, Polar Biology, vol.213, issue.88, pp.763-771, 2014.
DOI : 10.1007/s00300-014-1476-z

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00990701

M. Connan, P. Mayzaud, C. Trouvé, C. Barbraud, and Y. Cherel, Interannual dietary changes and demographic consequences in breeding blue petrels from Kerguelen Islands, Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol.373, pp.123-135, 2008.
DOI : 10.3354/meps07723

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00359279

M. Coquery, S. Azemard, and S. Mora, The analytical performance study for the Medpol region: determination of trace elements and methylmercury in estuarine sediment sample, 2001.

T. N. Corbisier, M. A. Petti, R. S. Skowronski, and T. A. Brito, Trophic relationships in the nearshore zone of Martel Inlet (King George Island, Antarctica): ?13C stable-isotope analysis, Polar Biology, vol.27, issue.2, pp.75-82, 2004.
DOI : 10.1007/s00300-003-0567-z

N. Coria, G. Soave, and D. Montalti, Diet of Cape petrel Daption capense during the post-hatching period at Laurie Island, South Orkney Islands, Antarctica, Polar Biology, vol.18, issue.4, pp.236-239, 1997.
DOI : 10.1007/s003000050183

S. Corsolini, Industrial contaminants in Antarctic biota, Journal of Chromatography A, vol.1216, issue.3, pp.598-612, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.chroma.2008.08.012

M. Deniro and S. Epstein, Influence of diet on the distribution of carbon isotopes in animals, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol.42, issue.5, pp.495-506, 1978.
DOI : 10.1016/0016-7037(78)90199-0

I. R. Dos-santos, E. V. Silva-filho, C. Schaefer, M. Sella, S. Silva et al., Baseline mercury and zinc concentrations in terrestrial and coastal organisms of Admiralty Bay, Antarctica, Environmental Pollution, vol.140, issue.2, pp.304-311, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.envpol.2005.07.007

K. H. Dunton, ? 15 N and ? 13 Cmeasurements of Antarctic peninsula fauna: trophic relationships and assimilation of benthic seaweeds, Am. Zool, vol.41, pp.99-112, 2001.

M. Favero, P. Silva, and G. Ferreyra, Trophic relationships between the kelp gull and the Antarctic limpet at King George Island (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica) during the breeding season, Polar Biology, vol.17, issue.5, pp.431-436, 1997.
DOI : 10.1007/s003000050137

W. Fitzgerald, D. Engstrom, R. Mason, and E. Nater, The Case for Atmospheric Mercury Contamination in Remote Areas, Environmental Science & Technology, vol.32, issue.1, pp.1-7, 1998.
DOI : 10.1021/es970284w

W. F. Fitzgerald, C. H. Lamborg, and C. R. Hammerschmidt, Marine Biogeochemical Cycling of Mercury, Chemical Reviews, vol.107, issue.2, pp.641-662, 2007.
DOI : 10.1021/cr050353m

M. Forero, J. González-solís, K. Hobson, J. Donázar, M. Bertellotti et al., Stable isotopes reveal trophic segregation by sex and age in the southern giant petrel in two different food webs, Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol.296, pp.107-113, 2005.
DOI : 10.3354/meps296107

J. González-solís, C. Sanpera, and X. Ruiz, Metals and selenium as bioindicators of geographic and trophic segregation in giant petrels Macronectes spp., Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol.244, pp.257-264, 2002.
DOI : 10.3354/meps244257

A. Goutte, P. Bustamante, and C. Barbraud, Demographic responses to mercury exposure in two closely related Antarctic top predators, Ecology, vol.95, issue.4, pp.1075-1086, 2014.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1474-919X.1963.tb02509.x

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00983249

A. Goutte, Y. Cherel, C. Churlaud, J. Ponthus, G. Massé et al., Trace elements in Antarctic fish species and the influence of foraging habitats and dietary habits on mercury levels, Science of The Total Environment, vol.538, pp.743-749, 2015.
DOI : 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.08.103

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01222917

K. A. Hobson and R. G. Clark, C in Tissues, The Condor, vol.94, issue.1, p.181, 1992.
DOI : 10.2307/1368807

H. Hsu-kim, K. H. Kucharzyk, T. Zhang, and M. A. Deshusses, Mechanisms Regulating Mercury Bioavailability for Methylating Microorganisms in the Aquatic Environment: A Critical Review, Environmental Science & Technology, vol.47, issue.6, pp.2441-2456, 2013.
DOI : 10.1021/es304370g

J. B. Johnson and K. S. Omland, Model selection in ecology and evolution, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, vol.19, issue.2, pp.101-108, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.tree.2003.10.013

URL : http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.401.777

Y. I. Lee, H. S. Lim, and H. I. Yoon, Carbon and nitrogen isotope composition of vegetation on King George Island, maritime Antarctic, Polar Biology, vol.15, issue.11, pp.1607-1615, 2009.
DOI : 10.1007/s00300-009-0659-5

V. Lesage, M. O. Hammill, and K. M. Kovacs, DIET-TISSUE FRACTIONATION OF STABLE CARBON AND NITROGEN ISOTOPES IN PHOCID SEALS, Marine Mammal Science, vol.208, issue.1, pp.182-193, 2002.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00379558

R. Lewis, T. C. O-'connell, M. Lewis, C. Campagna, and R. Hoelzel, Sex-specific foraging strategies and resource partitioning in the southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina), Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.73, issue.5919, pp.2901-2907, 2006.
DOI : 10.1038/303685a0

S. Locarnini and B. Presley, Trace element concentrations in Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, Polar Biol, vol.15, pp.283-288, 1995.

A. B. Lukowski, DDT and its metabolites in Antarctic birds, Pol. Arch. Hydrobiol, vol.25, issue.3, pp.663-668, 1978.

A. P. Majer, M. A. Petti, T. N. Corbisier, A. P. Ribeiro, C. Y. Theophilo et al., Bioaccumulation of potentially toxic trace elements in benthic organisms of Admiralty Bay (King George Island, Antarctica), Marine Pollution Bulletin, vol.79, issue.1-2, pp.321-325, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2013.12.015

A. Mão-de-ferro, A. M. Mota, and J. Canário, Pathways and speciation of mercury in the environmental compartments of Deception Island, Antarctica, Chemosphere, vol.95, pp.227-233, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.08.081

A. K. Miller, N. J. Karnovsky, and W. Z. Trivelpiece, Flexible foraging strategies of gentoo penguins Pygoscelis papua over 5??years in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, Marine Biology, vol.15, issue.12, pp.2527-2537, 2009.
DOI : 10.1007/s00227-009-1277-z

L. R. Monteiro, V. Costa, R. W. Furness, and R. S. Santos, Mercury concentrations in prey fish indicate enhanced bioaccumulation in mesopelagic environments, Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol.141, pp.21-25, 1996.
DOI : 10.3354/meps141021

F. M. Morel, A. M. Kraepiel, and M. Amyot, THE CHEMICAL CYCLE AND BIOACCUMULATION OF MERCURY, Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, vol.29, issue.1, pp.543-566, 1998.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.29.1.543

J. D. Moreno, M. Gerpe, V. Moreno, and C. Vodopivez, Heavy metals in Antarctic organisms, Polar Biology, vol.17, issue.2, pp.131-140, 1997.
DOI : 10.1007/s003000050115

F. Mougeot, F. Genevois, and V. Bretagnolle, Predation on burrowing petrels by the brown skua (Catharacta skua lonnbergi) at Mayes Island, Kerguelen, J. Zool. Lond, vol.244, pp.429-438, 1998.

H. Park, S. Lee, M. Kim, J. Kim, and H. S. Lim, Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in soils and lichens from King George Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, Antarctic Science, vol.22, issue.01, p.31, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/S0048-9697(02)00649-6

H. Peter, M. Kaiser, and A. Gebauer, Ecological and morphological investigations on South Polar Skuas (Catharacta maccormicki) and Brown Skuas (Catharacta skua lonnbergi) on Fildes Peninsula, 1990.

M. J. Polito, H. J. Lynch, R. Naveen, and S. D. Emslie, Stable isotopes reveal regional heterogeneity in the pre-breeding distribution and diets of sympatrically breeding Pygoscelis spp. penguins, Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol.421, pp.265-277, 2011.
DOI : 10.3354/meps08863

K. Reinhardt, S. Hahn, H. Peter, and H. Wemhoff, A review of the diets of Southern Hemisphere skuas, Mar. Ornithol, vol.28, pp.7-19, 2000.

L. Roosens, . Van-den, N. Brink, M. Riddle, R. Blust et al., Penguin colonies as secondary sources of contamination with persistent organic pollutants, Journal of Environmental Monitoring, vol.73, issue.8, pp.822-825, 2007.
DOI : 10.1039/b708103k

W. H. Schroeder, K. G. Anlauf, L. A. Barrie, J. Y. Lu, A. Steffen et al., Arctic springtime depletion of mercury, Nature, vol.394, issue.6691, pp.331-332, 1998.
DOI : 10.1038/28530

N. E. Selin, Global Biogeochemical Cycling of Mercury: A Review, Annual Review of Environment and Resources, vol.34, issue.1, pp.43-63, 2009.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.environ.051308.084314

P. Smichowski, C. Vodopivez, R. Muñoz-olivas, M. Gutierrez, and A. , Monitoring trace elements in selected organs of Antarctic penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) by plasma-based techniques, Microchemical Journal, vol.82, issue.1, pp.1-7, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.microc.2005.04.001

A. L. Soerensen, H. Skov, D. J. Jacob, B. T. Soerensen, and M. S. Johnson, Global Concentrations of Gaseous Elemental Mercury and Reactive Gaseous Mercury in the Marine Boundary Layer, Environmental Science & Technology, vol.44, issue.19, pp.7425-7430, 2010.
DOI : 10.1021/es903839n

C. N. Suda, G. S. Vani, M. F. De-oliveira, E. Rodrigues, E. Rodrigues et al., The biology and ecology of the Antarctic limpet Nacella concinna, Polar Biology, vol.336, issue.12, pp.1949-1969, 2015.
DOI : 10.1007/s00300-015-1789-6

P. Szefer, W. Czarnowski, J. Pempkowiak, and E. Holm, Mercury and major essential elements in seals, penguins, and other representative fauna of the Antarctic, Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, vol.25, issue.4, pp.422-427, 1993.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00214330

W. Trivelpiece, S. Trivelpiece, and N. Volkman, Ecological Segregation of Adelie, Gentoo, and Chinstrap Penguins at King George Island, Antarctica, Ecology, vol.68, issue.2, pp.351-361, 1987.
DOI : 10.2307/1939266

Y. Yamamoto, K. Honda, and R. Tatsukawa, Heavy Metal Accumulation in Antarctic Krill Euphausia superba, Proceedings of the National Institute of Polar Research Symposium on Polar Biology 1, pp.198-204, 1987.